Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 13 (3)
Volume: 13  Issue: 3 - 2022

Pages I - IV

Gülsüm Ançel
Page V

3.The effects of emergency psychiatric care training for emergency department nurses
Ayşe Büyükbayram Arslan, Esra Engin
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.56887  Pages 189 - 198
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to examine the effect of training on emergency psychiatric care on the thoughts, feelings, and attitude of emergency nurses toward patients with mental disorders.
METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional, single-group study that included a pretest, posttest, and follow-up evaluation. The study was conducted between May 2018 and March 2019 with 30 nurses (68.18%) who participated in a training program for nurses working in the emergency department of a university hospital in Türkiye. The Emergency Psychiatric Care training program consisted of approximately 19 hours. A weekend session was offered for 5 consecutive weeks in order to make it accessible to all of the nurses. The feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of the nurses toward patients with mental disorders were evaluated immediately before and after the training, as well as 3 months after the program. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: The findings revealed a statistically significant increase in the nurses’ level of knowledge and self-confidence related to emergency psychiatric care after participating in the training program, and their workload perception decreased (p<0.05). The nurses' average job satisfaction perception score also increased (p>0.05). The nurses exhibited a positive change in their thoughts and feelings toward psychiatric care after training, but importantly, the nurses’ attitude, a more long-standing measure, did not change significantly.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The training program had a positive impact on the nurses' level of knowledge related to providing psychiatric care, as well as their workload perception, self-confidence, feelings, and thoughts. This is valuable, however, regular training and other adjustments to working conditions will be necessary to establish a true attitude change.

4.The relationship between life expectancy and mental health systems in European countries
Gözde Yeşilaydın, Esra Uslu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.70456  Pages 199 - 204
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between life expectancy at birth (LEAB) and national mental health systems.
METHODS: Retrospective research was conducted using secondary data obtained from the World Health Organization Global Health Observatory database. The study sample consisted of annual data reported by numerous European countries. The secondary data of the independent variables used in the study represented the period of 2013 to 2017, while the secondary data of the dependent variable pertained to 2019.
RESULTS: A greater number of psychiatric hospitals, mental health units, outpatient facilities for mental health, beds for mental health patients (in general hospitals), and mental health physicians and nurses was associated with a greater LEAP (p<0.05). The data varied greatly between countries.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These findings reinforce the necessity of conducting reform of mental health policies as needed to ensure that there is adequate provision of care.

5.Emotional reactivity and burnout in clinical nurses
Nihan Altan Sarıkaya, Selda Öztürk, Sevcan Öz, Saadet Elmas
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.24381  Pages 205 - 210
INTRODUCTION: Nurses are exposed to a variety of factors that can create emotional challenges and increase the risk of burnout. This study was designed to examine the relationship between emotional reactivity and burnout among clinical nurses.
METHODS: This correlational and cross-sectional study was conducted at a university hospital. The sample consisted of 199 nurses. The data were collected using a sociodemographic characteristics questionnaire, the Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), and the Burnout Measure-Short Form (BM-SF).
RESULTS: The study participants had a mean BM-SF and ERS score of 35.85±11.42 and 41.78±8.50, respectively. They had a mean ERS emotional sensitivity, emotional intensity, and emotional persistence subscale score of 13.94±3.45, 11.46±2.54, and 16.36±3.71, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the BM-SF and ERS scores (p<0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Clinical nurses often experience conditions that can trigger emotional reactivity and individuals who dis-play greater emotional reactivity tend to have a higher degree of burnout. It is important that institutions and governing bodies provide nurses with training related to emotion recognition and expression to help them develop coping skills and psychological resilience.

6.The relationship between psychological distress and well-being among nurses in Türkiye during the COVID-19 pandemic
Zeynep Zonp, Emine Aktas, Yasemin Adıgüzel
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.90912  Pages 211 - 218
INTRODUCTION: Nurses were among the healthcare professionals at the forefront of the fight against the coronavirus 2019 pandemic and faced very stressful conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the level of psychological distress and well-being among nurses in Türkiye during this exceptionally challenging time.
METHODS: A total of 351 nurses participated in this cross-sectional study. The data were collected early in the pandemic during the period of April through June 2020 using a personal information form, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the World Health Organization (Five) Well-Being Index (WHO-5).
RESULTS: Among the study participants, 69.2% of the nurses worked as an essential frontline caregiver (emergency/intensive care units and pandemic wards). The mean WHO-5 score was 9.15±4.77 and the mean GHQ-28 score reflecting psychological distress was 10.17±7.02. In all, 86% of the nurses reported an increased level of work-related stress. A low level of well-being was a predictor of psychological distress (R2=.284). The WHO-5 scores were negatively correlated with psychological distress scores (p<0.01; r=-0.535).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Nurses working on the frontline during a pandemic are at great risk of developing adverse mental health outcomes. The study findings showed that the nurses' level of well-being was associated with the level of psychological distress. It is important to provide nurses with adequate psychological support to increase their sense of well-being and reduce psychological distress in order to ensure quality of care and maintain job satisfaction.

7.Factors affecting psychological symptoms and hope level in COVID-19 patients
Elif Gezginci, Tugba Caner Karatas, Sonay Goktas
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.27576  Pages 219 - 227
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting psychological symptoms and hope level in patients diagnosed with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).
METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted with 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were treated in the pandemic ward of a training and research hospital between January and March 2021. Patient data were collected using a patient information form, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS).
RESULTS: The mean Global Severity Index score of the BSI was 0.45±0.36, the mean Positive Symptom Total (PST) score was 12.98±9.23, the mean Positive Symptom Distress Index score was 1.78±0.5, and the mean DHS total score was 46.42±9.41. Regression analysis yielded a significant cause and effect relationship between education status and anxiety disorder (F=7.953; p=0.005) as well as a relationship between age, gender, education level, income, and the pres-ence of chronic disease and the total hope score (F=3.158; p=0.010). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the mean DHS score and the mean PST score (r=-0.262; p=0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The findings of this study revealed that overall, the patients displayed minimal psychological symptoms and a high level of hope. Age, gender, education, income, and the presence of chronic disease affected the hope level, while education had an effect on the level of anxiety. The hope level of the COVID-19 patients studied decreased as psychological symptoms increased. The development and implementation of psychological interventions to increase the hope level of these patients and the general public is recommended as a preventive and strengthening measure.

8.Post -traumatic stress disorder and stigma perception among healthcare professionals caring for COVID-19 patients
Mehtap Tan, Yasemin Çıracı Yaşar
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.66674  Pages 228 - 235
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the level of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and internalized stigma among healthcare workers caring for patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) during the height of the pandemic.
METHODS: The data of this descriptive, cross-sectional study were collected online using a personal information form and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PCL-DSM-5).
RESULTS: The mean PCL-DSM-5 score of the healthcare professionals evaluated was 38.143±17.30765. When asked about their perception of stigma related to COVID-19, half of those who tested positive for COVID-19 concealed the diagnosis from neighbors and family, 91% of the participants felt the need to isolate themselves when potentially symptomatic, 60% stated that other people were trying to avoid them, and 66% reported symptoms of COVID-19.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals who experienced possible symptoms of COVID-19 and chose to isolate themselves and those who felt that others were trying to stay away from them experienced more symptoms of PTSD. Our findings indicated that many healthcare workers who cared for patients with COVID-19 reported signs of internalized stigma and PTSD. These findings and other literature reports emphasize the need to provide healthcare professionals with appropriate emotional support in order to ensure employee welfare, retention, and quality care.

9.Analyzing the concept of posttraumatic growth via qualitative film analysis: Breathe
Nurgül Özgen, Melike Ayça Ay Kaatsız
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.90023  Pages 236 - 243
INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a concept that emerges with the struggles after a major life crisis and provides development after the struggle for survival. It is important for nurses because chronic diseases and losses can turn into traumatic experiences. Movies are an effective tool for teaching concepts in nursing.
METHODS: This study aimed to investigate the concept of PTG and how this process can be realized through a film. Methods: In this research, the life process of the protagonist of the movie Breathe was examined via document analysis within the framework of the concept of PTG. First, information about the movie was obtained, and it was found to be suitable for the analysis. The film was rewatched, and the scenes containing the related concepts were classified. At the last stage, these data obtained as a result of the analysis were discussed with the dimensions of PTG and other research findings in the literature. The reporting was guided by the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) checklist.
RESULTS: A total of 18 scenes related to the five subdimensions of PTG were determined. Of them, six included positive change in interpersonal relations, two included change in the belief system, three included understanding the value of life and realizing new options, and four included feeling powerful.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The movie Breathe contains audiovisual materials including PTG, subdimensions, and related concepts. It has been concluded that it can be used as an effective tool for teaching the concept of PTG. Key words: education; nursing; movie; posttraumatic growth.

10.Developing an ethical approach evaluation scale for psychiatric patients
Gizem Özalp, Leyla Baysan Arabacı
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.35582  Pages 244 - 252
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate the ethical approaches of health professionals working in psychiatry units toward psychiatric patients and to conduct a validity–reliability study for this scale.
METHODS: The research data that was planned methodologically were collected from 316 nurses working in four different regional psychiatric hospitals between February 2020 and February 2021. While collecting research data, “Descriptive Information Form” and the “Ethical Approach Toward Psychiatric Patients Evaluation Scale” were used. The draft scale, consisting of 48 items, took its final form consisting of 27 items as a result of the required validity and reliability studies. In the development process of the scale, the Lawshe technique, explanatory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, test-retest reliability, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient, and item-total correlation analyzes were performed.
RESULTS: As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, the scale developed by the researchers based on the relevant literature took its final form with four subdimensions of authoritarian, protective–altruistic, normative, and social distance. It was determined that the model data fit of the tested data was quite high based on the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (GFI=0.96, AGFI=0.95, RMSEA=0.068, SRMR=0.071, and chi-square/df=775.06/316=2.452). Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients of the Ethical Approach Toward Psychiatric Patients Evaluation Scale were as follows: αau-=0.84, αprotective-altruistic=0.74, αnormative=0.76, αsocial distance=0.70, and αEAPPES=0.88. The estimated test-retest reliability thoritarian coefficients for the whole scale and its subdimensions were as follows: rEAPPES=0.93 rauthoritarian=0.94, rprotective-altruistic=0.79, rnormative=0.83, and rsocial distance=0.72.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: As a result of these data, it was determined that the “Ethical Approach Toward Psychiatric Patients Evaluation Scale” is a valid and reliable scale.

11.The relationship between suicide and hopelessness in young adults aged 18-30: A systematic review
Merve Bat Tonkuş, Behice Belkıs Çalışkan, Ece Alagöz
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.76993  Pages 253 - 262
INTRODUCTION: This review presents a number of studies that assessed the concept of hopelessness in individuals aged 18 to 30 with a history of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt.
METHODS: The Turkish Citation Index, TR Index, Turkish Psychiatric Index, Wiley Online Library, PubMed, and Science Direct databases were reviewed between January and February 2021, and 18 qualitative and quantitative studies published between 2016 and 2020 were selected. The 27-item Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Checklist was used to evaluate the reporting characteristics.
RESULTS: The findings of 18 articles were reviewed and presented. The search revealed no studies examining suicide and hopelessness in Türkiye. In all, 12 of the studies were descriptive, 2 were randomized controlled studies, 2 were retrospective studies, 1 was a cohort study, 1 was an experimental study, and 1 was a cross-sectional observational study. The data indicated that a greater level of hopelessness was associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Hopelessness is an important predictor of suicide. Greater knowledge and awareness of the complex risk factors for suicide can be used to provide the appropriate early treatment to promote hope, provide coping skills, and prevent suicidal behavior. Additional studies examining the important suicide risk factor of hopelessness in Türkiye are needed.

12.Existential anxiety and sense of guilt for mental health
Senem Önol, Esra Engin
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.38268  Pages 263 - 267
Living without meaning, purpose, values, or ideals causes significant anxiety. Because it is impossible to design life in advance, individuals have to create their own meanings. “Feeling guilt for being” suggested by existential theorists contradicts the sense of incompleteness or the fact that we are not who we should be. It is about noticing the fact that our actions and choices mean far less than our full being as individuals. This sense of guilt is neither considered neurotic nor a symptom that needs to be treated. Existential guilt is something more than a distressing affective state, a symptom that needs to be studied and eradicated.

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