Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 13 (4)
Volume: 13  Issue: 4 - 2022
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
1.The effect of the emotional freedom technique on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fear and anxiety levels of nurses working in the emergency department: A randomized controlled study
Gülşah Okut, Şule Ecevit Alpar, Elif Dönmez
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.60948  Pages 269 - 278
INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has been a significant public health problem due to its high mortality and morbidity rates, has particularly affected the fear and anxiety levels of health professionals. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) on the anxiety and fear of COVID-19 levels of nurses in the emergency department.
METHODS: This study was designed in line with a pre-and post-test, two-group methodology. A total of 88 participants (experimental group, 44; control group, 44) were included in this study. Data were collected using the following four tools: Questionnaire Form, Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Fear of COVID-19 scale.
RESULTS: A total of 84 nurses, 41 of whom were in the intervention group and 43 in the control group, were included in this study. After the intervention, the fear of COVID-19 (-4.58±2.47) levels and the mean anxiety intensity (SUD) of the participants decreased (-5.61±1.16) in the experimental group, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001) when compared to that of the control group; the state anxiety (-8.82±7.26) and trait anxiety (-1.16±2.97) averages decreased, the decrease in state anxiety was statistically significant (p<0.001), while the decrease in trait anxiety was not significant (p>0.005). There was no significant change in the mean scores of the control group (P19S=-0.09±2.47; SUD=0±1.15; DDS=-0.22±7.25; SDS=-0.04±2.97).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study showed that EFT sessions administered in a group setting reduced and helped the emergency nurses better cope with COVID-19 anxiety and fear levels.

2.The effect of psychodrama group therapy on coping and the quality of life of palliative care nurses
Deniz Kaya Meral, Nihan Altan Sarıkaya
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.27482  Pages 279 - 285
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals play a crucial role in palliative care. Palliative care professionals experience physical, psychological, and emotional distress. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of psychodrama group therapy on palliative care nurses' coping and quality of life.
METHODS: This study adopted a single-group, repetitive-measurement (pretest, posttest, and follow-up) experimental design. The study population consisted of 15 nurses in the palliative care clinic of a training and research hospital on the European side of Istanbul. Twelve nurses participated in the first session; however, one nurse did not take the posttest and follow-up test. Therefore, the sample consisted of 11 nurses. Data were collected using a Personal Information Form, the Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI), and the Professional Quality of Life Scale (PQLS).
RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the pretest, posttest, and follow-up test WCI “helpless” (p=.001) and “submissive”(p=.000) subscale scores as well as between the pretest, posttest, and follow-up test PQLS “compassion fatigue” (p=.003) subscale scores.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Psychodrama group therapy helps palliative care nurses to use more effective coping strategies and experience less compassion fatigue.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
3.Emotional eating behavior among adolescents
Raziye Yüksel Doğan, Haktan Demircioğlu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.34022  Pages 286 - 294
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore emotional eating behaviors in individuals transitioning from child-hood to adolescence and uncover the factors that differentiate emotional eating behaviors among early adolescents.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey study that investigated early adolescents' emotional eating behavior based on their demographic characteristics, family and peer relationships, and emotional awareness. The sample was com-posed of 758 students aged 11–14 years, including 373 girls and 385 boys, attending a state secondary school in the Kecioren district of Ankara. The data were collected using a demographic information form and the Emotional Eating Scale for Children and Adolescents (EES-C).
RESULTS: The findings revealed that emotional eating in early adolescents was associated with demographic characteristics (birth order, maternal education, and family income level), family relationships (care/affection from family, opinions in family decisions, solving problems by communicating to family members, the importance of feelings in the family, frequency of conflict with mother), emotional awareness (difficulty in recognizing and expressing feelings and frequency of eating to feel better), and peer relationships (frequency of being teased by friends).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Overall, in light of the findings, it may be recommended to adopt a holistic perspective in identifying and evaluating protective factors to prevent emotional eating and risk factors leading to emotional eating among early adolescents.

4.Mental health and psychiatric clinical practice experiences of nursing students: A qualitative study
Özgür Sema Acı, Ebru Çoban, Nur Sena Kayacan, Muhammet Sait Demir, Fatma Yasemin Kutlu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.44342  Pages 295 - 305
INTRODUCTION: Psychiatric and mental health nursing clinical practices are different from that in other areas of nursing be-cause of the patients’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. This can increase nursing students’ stress during clinical practice and result in negative experiences. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the experiences of nursing students regarding mental health and psychiatric clinical practice.
METHODS: The phenomenological method was used in this study, and data were collected through focus group interviews, for a total of four focus group interviews. Students who had completed their clinical practice in mental health and psychiatric nursing were selected through purposeful sampling (n=25).
RESULTS: Four themes emerged from the focus group interviews: challenges, satisfaction, maturation, and requirements.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Findings showed that the use of images and warnings that may create prejudice about patients should be avoided in the pre-clinical period, and activities such as clinical practice simulations, structured psychoeducation pro-grams, and watching movies should be included. In the post-clinical period, satisfaction and positive attitude changes may occur despite the negative conditions of clinical practice. In addition, increasing the time students spend in the clinic, improving their internship preparations by including activities that will reduce their prejudices, reducing home-work pressures, increasing in-clinic activities, giving psychiatry and mental health nursing courses in the first years of nursing education, meeting the training needs of health personnel, meeting the quality and number of educators, increasing the number of hospitals, and arranging their physical environments therapeutically can enable students to have positive internship experiences.

5.The relationship between mothers’ birth memories and attachment styles
Hediye Karakoç, Ebru Bekmezci, Halime Esra Meram
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.65982  Pages 306 - 315
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to examine the relationship between mothers' birth memories and secure and insecure attachment styles was investigated.
METHODS: Two-hundred forty-one women who met the inclusion criteria were included in this descriptive and relation-ship-seeking study from October to December 2020. The research data were collected using the Introductory Information Form, the Birth Memories and Recall Questionnaire, and Adult Attachment Style Scale.
RESULTS: It was determined that 47.3% of the mothers were between the ages of 25–29 years, 56.4% of them had a university or higher education level. There was a positive, moderate correlation between insecure attachment, with the mean score of memory centrality (p≤0.001), coherence and reliving (p≤0.001), sensory memory (p≤0.001), and recall (p≤0.001). It was determined that the independent variables that had an effect on the total score of the Birth Memories and Recall Questionnaire were abortion history (p≤0.05), planned pregnancy (p≤0.05), and experiencing a distressing event at birth (p≤0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In the study, it was determined that there was a difference between positive and negative birth memories and attachment styles. In this context, emotional needs of mothers as well as their physical needs should be taken into account, and supportive care should be provided.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
6.The investigation of nursing student’s opinions about symbolic violence towards patients
Bahanur Malak Akgün, Adeviye Aydın
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.77854  Pages 316 - 324
INTRODUCTION: This study was aimed to investigate the views of the nursing students regarding the newspaper news that contain symbolic violence conducted against the patients in the institution.
METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 33 undergraduate nursing students at a University in Türkiye, who studied Nursing Ethics courses to examine views on symbolic violence. In the research, the newspaper news that contain symbolic violence against the patients which were published between the years 2013-2018 have been utilized. Participants were included in the study using purposive sampling method. The views of nursing students who volunteered were included in the study have been gathered regarding the question structured accordingly to the six selected news. The research materials were provided to students in the computer. These responses were Word file submissions. In data analysis, researchers firstly identified independent themes and sub-themes. Then, common themes and sub-themes were determined.
RESULTS: The main themes were as follows: “The causes of symbolic violence”, “education: raising awareness”, “field rules”, “feelings on events”. Related to news where ethical problems occurred, students stated that those nurses tend to show symbolic violence due to lack of professional knowledge. According to the students, images containing symbolic violence were shared for entertainment purposes within the team and on social media. The most students did not know about the laws and regulations of Türkiye related the nursing profession. Most of the students participating in the study stated that they do not have sufficient knowledge about the laws and regulations related to the nursing profession in Türkiye.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The views of nursing students on symbolic violence behaviors were determined. According to the opinions, the symbolic violence applied to the patients is due to reasons such as not being able to gain a nursing habitus, experiencing depersonalization, getting social approval, and individual characteristics. Awareness programs for symbolic violence and its causes should be established and students should be adequately educated about the ethical values of nursing in the curriculum.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
7.Relationship between stress perceived by married individuals and attitudes to violence against women in the pandemic
Nursel Alp Dal, Kerime Derya Beydağ
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.98965  Pages 325 - 331
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between married individuals’ perceived stress level and violence against women attitudes in the pandemic.
METHODS: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on a total of 773 married individuals between January and July 2021. The data were collected using a demographic information form, the perceived stress scale (PSS), and the ISKEBE violence against women attitude scale (ISKEBE Attitude Scale).
RESULTS: Of the married individuals, 34.8% were subjected to verbal violence, and 4.7% were subjected to physical violence. In addition, 18.9% of them had a worse marital relationship in the pandemic than that before the pandemic. There was a weak positive correlation between the married individuals’ PSS and ISKEBE Attitude Scale total mean scores (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Midwives and nurses should evaluate their patients’ perceived stress levels and violence against women attitudes.

8.Facilitators of interactive problems between parents and adolescents: A qualitative study
Maryam Modarres, Leila Norouzi Panahi, Hossein Namdar Areshtanab, Seyedeh Tahereh Mirmolaei
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.79735  Pages 332 - 341
INTRODUCTION: Puberty is an important adjustment period for adolescents and their families. Moving from childhood to adulthood is associated with many behavioral and emotional changes. Many parents describe adolescence as the most difficult and anxiety-provoking period in their child’s life. The present study aimed to explore the facilitators of interactive problems between parents and adolescents that Iranian parents experience in dealing with their teenage children aged between 11 and 16 years.
METHODS: This study was conducted through qualitative content analysis. A purposive sample group of 30 parents from four healthcare systems and four school counselors from two public and two private schools in Iran- Tabriz were selected. The study took from November 2018 to January 2019. The data was collected through in-depth, semistructured, and face-to-face interviews with parents of teenage children. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed manually.
RESULTS: After eliminating similar codes in the data analysis process, 175 codes, 27 subcategories, 9 categories, and 3 themes were extracted from the parents and school counselors’ experiences regarding the facilitators of interactive problems between parents and adolescents. The three categories that emerged from the analysis were: (1) Individual context, (2) Family, and (3) society.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Parents’ perception of the factors that influence the development of problems between them and their adolescents, was categorized into three main themes: individual context, family, and social conditions. Based on the findings, these conditions should be considered when designing suitable educational programs for promoting adolescents’ health and in implementing required family and community-based interventions to prevent issues in adulthood.

9.Negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on health workers: a cross-sectional study on emotional labor and burnout
Zeliha Büyükbayram, Sidar Gül
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.92195  Pages 342 - 351
INTRODUCTION: This research aimed to examine the relationship between emotional labor and burnout levels of health-care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.
METHODS: It was aimed to examine healthcare workers’ emotional labor and burnout levels during the COVID-19 pan-demic in this cross-sectional descriptive and relationship-seeking study. Data were obtained from 315 healthcare workers who worked at a hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic between February 1 and 26, 2021, using a Descriptive Information Form, the Emotional Labor Inventory, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The data collection tools were sent online to health workers. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, One-Way Variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Pearson analysis.
RESULTS: The mean scores of the participants’ total Emotional Labor Inventory, surface acting, deep-acting, and naturally felt emotions subdimensions were 39.18±6.79, 15.71±5.21, 12.58±3.58, and 10.88±2.62, respectively. The mean scores of the participants’ total Maslach Burnout Inventory, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment subdimensions were 40.61±10.95, 20.68±7.23, 7.56±3.73, and 12.36±4.66, respectively. It was found that there was a positive significant relationship between the participants’ total emotional labor and burnout point averages (p<0.05). The analysis showed that in the COVID-19 pandemic, emotional labor behavior increases in healthcare workers, and this leads to burnout.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Participants’ mean scores of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from burnout subdimensions were found to be moderate, and their personal accomplishment subdimension mean score was found to be high. Emotional labor behavior has a determining role in the burnout of the participants.

10.Violence responsibility, attitudes toward violence, and factors affecting violence: Examining the intimate relationships of university students
Nilgün Avcı, Zehra Gürsoy, Merve Murat
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.11129  Pages 352 - 362
INTRODUCTION: The goal of this research is to evaluate the university students’ violence responsibility and attitudes toward intimate relationship.
METHODS: The research was performed in a descriptive and cross-sectional design with students at the Health Sciences Faculty of a private university in Istanbul. The research universe consisted of 2057 students in the 2017–2018 academic year. On the other hand, the sampling was calculated by using the formula with a known universe, and it was found that at least 384 students should be reached. 424 of the students who volunteered to participate in the study between February and July 2018. The data were collected via e-mail using a Personal Information Form, Attitudes Toward Dating Violence Scales, and Intimate Violence Responsibility Scale.
RESULTS: It was determined that 89.6% of the students were female, 98.3% were single, 40.6% were studying in the nursing department, and 29.7% were first year students. It was found that 20% of the students used violence before, 57.1% witnessed, 5.7% were exposed to violence in the relationship, and 2.6% used violence in the relationship. A statistically significant relationship was found between the attitudes toward dating violence and gender (p<0.05). It was observed that as the students’ grades increased, the level of intimate violence responsibility decreased. It was determined that the mean scores of the sub-dimension of violence recognition in The Intimate Violence Responsibility Scale were higher and significant (p<0.05) for those who used violence and those who were exposed to violence.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It was determined that one-fifth of university students exposed to violence, and more than half of them witnessed. It was found that age, gender, family type, and the use of violence affect the level of violence acceptance. The students’ responsibility in intimate violence was found to be associated with gender, class, family type, and duration of relationship.

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