Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 13 (2)
Volume: 13  Issue: 2 - 2022

Pages I - IV

Ayşe Okanlı
Pages V - VI

3.The effect of motivational interviewing and telepsychiatric follow-up on medication adherence of patients with bipolar disorder: A randomized controlled trial
Zarif Gaye Gülcü, Meral Kelleci
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.24582  Pages 101 - 107
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to determine the effect of an individualized motivational interview-based program to improve medication adherence with a telepsychiatric complement (by telephone) on outpatients with bipolar disorder in follow-up at a community mental health center.
METHODS: A randomized controlled experimental study was conducted with 54 patients who were receiving care for bipolar disorder at a community mental health center post hospitalization. The data were collected using an information form, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS), and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. A motivational, interview-based program to improve medication adherence consisting of 6 sessions and a total of 240–270 minutes was administered to the experimental group. After the program, SMS medication reminders were sent to the patients in the experimental group for 3 months. The scales were readministered to the experimental and control groups at the end of the third and sixth month to assess medication adherence. Variance analysis, significance test of difference between means, the Friedman test, the Mann-Whitney U test, a chi-squared test, and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the data.
RESULTS: The mean MMAS score in the experimental group was 2.96±0.69 before the program, 0.46±0.83 after 3 months, and 0.14±0.44 after 6 months. The difference in the medication adherence scores of the patients in the experimental group after the program and telephone follow-up was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was no significant change in the medication adherence level in the control group (p>0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the motivational interview and telepsychiatric follow-up techniques were successful and can be used to increase medication adherence of bipolar patients.

4.The relationship between bullying behaviors experienced by nursing students in clinical practice and their self-esteem level
Ayşegül Koç, Bahar İnkaya, Betül Çakmak, Esra Tayaz
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.37541  Pages 108 - 114
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the experience of bullying in clinical practice and the self-esteem of nursing students.
METHODS: The research was designed as a comparative cross-sectional type study using a sample of 324 students studying in the nursing department of a university in the period of May-July 2019. A personal information form; the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R), used to measure workplace bullying; and the Two-dimensional Self-esteem Scale (TDSES) (Self-Liking/Self Competence Scale),were used to collect data.
RESULTS: The mean NAQ-R score was 39.08±10.94 and the mean TDSES score was 56.67±8.64.The majority of the students (89.81%) were female. The top 3 monthly expenses of the students were food (37.96%), housing (29.02%), and education (20.68%). When asked about use of smart devices, 66.04% of the students reported use of an average of 2-6 hours a day, and 92.5% responded that they spend 0-6 hours a day using social media. In all, 43.21% reported that they felt most active between 12: 00-6: 00 PM. There was a significant difference in the workplace bullying scale score according to the students' age, program year, type of residence, the self-esteem scale scores, and social media usage hours (p<0.05). A negative correlation was found between the NAQ-R and the total self-esteem and subdimension scores (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that several variables had an effect on nursing students' self-esteem level and perceived exposure to negative acts in the workplace. It is important that nursing curricula address self-esteem and bullying in the workplace.

5.The relationship between anxiety and perceived social support during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak
İpek Çelik, Sena Karakebelioğlu, Berna Güloğlu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.52386  Pages 115 - 124
INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) quickly reached pandemic status. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of anxiety, the factors affecting anxiety, and the relationship between anxiety and perceived social support during the early period of the pandemic in Türkiye.
METHODS: A total of 405 females and 127 males (n=532) were enrolled in the study. The age range of the participants was 18-73 years, with a mean age of 30.95 years. A demographic information form, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used to collect data using an online format. Since the data did not show normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Spearman correlation coefficient were utilized in the analysis.
RESULTS: The findings indicated that 77.8% of the individuals participating in the study had a mild level of anxiety, 10.3% demonstrated a moderate level of anxiety, and 11.8% displayed a severe level of anxiety. The female participants had a higher level of anxiety than the male respondents. The anxiety level of those who constantly followed the news about the virus and those who only partially implemented the precautions suggested by the experts was high. The length of time spent at home in self-isolation and changes to work conditions did not create a significant difference in the level of anxiety. A negative correlation was observed between anxiety and perceived social support from family and friends, however, support from another significant person, such as a fiancé, was not significant.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The pandemic had a negative impact on mental health; however, social support played a protective role. Various examples from the literature are provided to provide relevant context.

6.Resources, stressors and coping strategies of nurses caring for patients with coronavirus from the perspective of Conservation of Resources Theory: A qualitative study
Nazmiye Yıldırım, Melisa Bulut
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.24434  Pages 125 - 132
INTRODUCTION: To explore the resources, stress factors and coping strategies of nurses, who provide direct care to patients with coronavirus disease.
METHODS: In this qualitative study, 20 registered nurses were interviewed, who have been working in the pandemic hospitals located in different parts of Turkey for at least two weeks. In-depth interviews were carried out individually and online. Interview data were analyzed with thematic analysis from the perspective of the Conservation of Resources Theory (COR).
RESULTS: Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data according to the COR theory. First theme, resources are required to adapt to changing processes and to be motivated to maintain service. Nurses' personal resources were helping patients, professional responsibility, spirituality, hope and conscience. Money, knowledge, and experience were energy resources while being in a well-functioning working team, having a similar fate, and social support were condition resources and the personal protective equipment formed object resources. Second theme, perceived threats to their resources are the main stressors. The final theme is that strategies for coping with identified stressors are reactive rather than proactive.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study contributed to the resources being noticed that nurses had and used during the pandemic, as well as into understanding which resources were under threat and a critical component of the stress process. The findings of the study can be used by psychiatric consultation-liaison nurses to strengthen their resources and support clinical nurses to effectively cope with the negative effects and consequences of the pandemic.

7.Perception of stigma and attitudes toward seeking psychological help among nurses working in a rehabilitation hospital
Fatma Helin Yılmaz, Kerime Derya Beydag
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.75002  Pages 133 - 138
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the attitudes toward seeking psychological help and associated stigma among nurses at a physical therapy and rehabilitation hospital in Istanbul, Türkiye.
METHODS: The study sample consisted of 160 nurses working at a single hospital in April-August 2019. The data were collected using a descriptive characteristics questionnaire, the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help-Short Form (ATSPPH-SF), and the Stigma Scale for Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH).
RESULTS: In the group, 18.8% of the nurses reported that they had received professional psychological support, and 28.8% stated that they would hide it from their friends if they received psychological support. The mean SSRPH score was 10.51±1.9 and the mean ATSPPH-SF score was 27.46±2.92. A weak negative relationship was observed between the scale scores (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The nurses who expressed a stronger view of stigma attached to psychological care expressed a more negative view about seeking psychological help. Additional efforts to raise awareness of the benefits of mental health care among and by healthcare staff could help to reduce the stigma and ensure better quality of life.

8.Examination of the psychosocial effects of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic
Nurhayat Kılıç Bayageldi
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.45712  Pages 139 - 149
INTRODUCTION: A pandemic can have multiple psychosocial effects. This web-based, cross-sectional study analyzed psychosocial effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on Turkish society.
METHODS: The research data were collected electronically via an online questionnaire platform using a personal information form, a form that requested information about experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-42 (DASS-42). A total of 1420 individuals participated in the study. Descriptive statistical methods (number, percentage, mean, SD) were used to assess the data. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare quantitative data between 2 groups and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparisons of >2 groups. Multiple comparison tests were performed to examine differences.
RESULTS: It was determined that 44.8% of the participants experienced mild depression, 36.1% had moderate anxiety, and 40.8% displayed moderate stress. Demographic characteristics of gender, age, marital status, educational and occupational status revealed differences in depression, anxiety, and stress values (p<0.05). Individual experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic were also associated with differences in terms of depression, stress and anxiety (p<0.01).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic had clear psychological, economic, social, and behavioral effects that may have a lasting impact on society.

9.The relationship between nurses’ self-compassion and professional burnout
Kübra Kabakçı, Özlem Şahin Altun
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.29291  Pages 150 - 156
INTRODUCTION: This research was conducted to examine the relationship between nurses’ self-compassion and occupational burnout.
METHODS: Data for this descriptive study were collected from a population of 765 nurses at a university hospital in a province of the Eastern Anatolia region of Türkiye between March and October 2020. A sample was not selected. The research was completed with information provided by 316 participants. A personal information form, the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and the Burnout Measure (BM) were used to collect data. Coefficient alpha and Pearson correlation analysis were used to evaluate the findings
RESULTS: More than half of the participating nurses were between the ages of 25 and 29, female, and single. Most wanted to pursue a career in nursing and had a bachelor’s degree. The mean SCS score was 75.32±15.67 and the mean total BM score was 4.04±1.27. The mean BM subscale scores were 4.19±1.48 for emotional exhaustion, 3.08±0.78 for mental exhaustion, and 4.20±1.27 for physical exhaustion.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The findings revealed a moderate level of self-compassion and a high level of burnout. Greater self-compassion was associated with less burnout.

10.Influence of depression, stress, and anxiety on work performance among nurses in tuberculosis/HIV and COVID-19 units on Timor Island
Ni Made Merlin, Antonius Rino Vanchapo, Flavianus Riantiarno
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.79027  Pages 157 - 162
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between work performance and self-reported symptoms of depression, stress, and anxiety among nurses in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV and COVID-19 units on Timor Island, Indonesia.
METHODS: This research used a comparative, cross-sectional design. The data were collected between October 2020 and January 2021. The total population sampling technique was used. The study group comprised 236 nurses working in TB/HIV isolation rooms and 423 nurses in COVID-19 isolation rooms. The data were collected using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-42) and a work performance questionnaire. The instruments were administered online. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-testing to see differences in the performance of TB/HIV isolation unit nurses compared with that of COVID-19 isolation unit nurses, and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to measure the strength and direction of the relationship between work performance and depression, stress, and anxiety.
RESULTS: The mean DASS-42 scores of nurses in the TB/HIV isolation units were low, indicating minimal effects. The mean score was 4.56 for depression, 4.44 for anxiety, and 5.63 for stress. The scores of those in the COVID-19 isolation units reflected moderate levels of depression, stress, and anxiety: the mean was 17.03 for depression, 11.23 for anxiety and 6.120 for stress. The work performance results indicated that the nurses in the TB/HIV isolation rooms, on average, had sufficient work performance, while those in the COVID-19 isolation rooms demonstrated weaker work performance. There was a significant difference in the work performance between nurses working in the 2 units (p value <0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The state of nurses’ depression, stress, and anxiety was correlated with work performance in the TB/HIV and COVID-19 isolation units.

11.Resilience, attachment to God, and hope in mothers of children with a specific learning disability
Shahrooz Nemati, Nazila Shojaeian, Rukiya Deetjen - Ruiz, Rahul PratapSingh Kaurav, Rahim Badri, Zahra Khani
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.15013  Pages 163 - 167
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current research was to study the relationship between resilience, personal attachment to God, and the level of hope in mothers of children with a specific learning disability (SLD).
METHODS: The study sample consisted of 131 mothers of children with a diagnosed SLD in the city of Tabriz, Iran, in 2018. The Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Attachment to God Inventory developed by Rowatt and Kirkpatrick, and Snyder's Adult Hope Scale were administered to the participants.
RESULTS: The results showed a significant positive correlation between hope and both resilience and a secure attachment style to God, as well as a significant negative correlation between hope and avoidant and anxious attachment to God.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Concurrent regression analysis revealed that among the variables related to resilience and secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment, only resilience predicted hope. Resilience training for this group of parents as well as additional research designed to yield evidence-based practices related to the attachment to God variable in the area of special educational needs appears to potentially be of substantial value.

12.The relationship between attitude toward intimate partner violence and self-confidence among students of a university vocational school of health services
Kübra Tan, Gamze Akay, Emre Erkal
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.38257  Pages 168 - 176
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to determine which factors affected the self-confidence and attitude toward intimate partner violence among university students and the correlation between the level of self-confidence and attitude toward intimate partner violence.
METHODS: A total of 1125 students at the vocational school for health professions of a public university were enrolled in this descriptive study. A personal information form, the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised (IPVAS) and the Self-Confidence Scale (SCS) were administered to collect data. The methods of analysis used were the independent sample t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: The mean age of the students 20.73±1.79 years, the mean IPVAS score was 46.86±8.52, and the mean SCS score was 126.59±25.70. There was a significant negative correlation between the scale scores (r=-0.287; p<0.001). Low self-confidence was a predictor of a more accepting attitude toward intimate partner violence. A number of sociodemographic variables were observed to have an impact on the assessment scores.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Students with greater self-confidence displayed a more negative attitude toward intimate partner violence, while students who had less self-confidence indicated a more accepting or condoning attitude towards intimate partner violence. Initiatives to educate students about the negative effects of violence in relationships as well as efforts to increase self-confidence can serve as preventive measures and valuable training.

13.Ethics of responsibility in psychiatric care
Beyhan Bag
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.57873  Pages 177 - 183
Responsibility is often defined in terms of accountability for actions based on ethical and legal norms. However, the concept is multidimensional and is relevant to many disparate disciplines. The concepts of responsibility and responsibility ethics are central to the context of disease/healthcare and the delivery psychiatric care services. The vulnerability of the patient as well as legal and institutional factors contribute to a variety of potential ethical dilemmas for caregivers. A thorough understanding the concept of responsibility and its ethical dimensions is very important to providing psychiatric care of high quality that protects patients and healthcare providers. This review examines the definition, application, and effects of the concept of responsibility and the ethics of responsibility in the practice of psychiatric nurses.

14.Guided self-help to manage emotional eating in a non-obese woman: A case study
Gülsüm Zekiye Tuncer, Zekiye Çetinkaya Duman
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.65037  Pages 184 - 187
Eating behavior in women may be affected by several factors, such as their environment, body image, and mood, and a deterioration in healthy eating behaviors can lead to overeating, stress or emotional disorders, obesity, and other health concerns. This case study examined the results of a guided self-help program (GSHP) designed to address emotional eating behavior in a non-obese woman. The outcomes indicated that a 12-session GSHP reduced the patient’s emotional eating behavior. To our knowledge, this is the first such study. The results cannot be generalized to a wider population as they are applicable to only 1 case; therefore, additional research using GSHP with larger samples are needed. Nonetheless, the findings were encouraging and psychiatric nurses should consider implementing GSHP techniques to help regulate emotional eating behaviors.

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