Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 13 (1)
Volume: 13  Issue: 1 - 2022

Pages I - IV

Fahriye Oflaz
Pages V - VI

3.The effect of psychoeducation on the social skills and problem-solving skills of female prisoners
Mehtap Kızılkaya, Gül Ünsal, Semra Karaca
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.92653  Pages 1 - 8
INTRODUCTION: This research was designed to evaluate the effect of education developed to address the psychosocial needs of women in penal institutions related to social skills and problem-solving skills.
METHODS: The research was conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 with women serving a sentence in 2 Type E, closed prisons in Aydın, Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form, a brief questionnaire, the Social Skills Inventory (SSI), the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI) and an evaluation form. Content analysis was used to assess qualitative data, including frequency and percentage distribution, and quantitative data were evaluated using a t-test for dependent groups.
RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 37.79±8.94 years, and 48.1% were illiterate. In all, 25.9% of the women were convicted of theft and 72.2% had another 1-4 years remaining to serve. The mean PSI score before the psychoeducation course was 115.72±15.77, and 110.85±14.01 after the program. The mean SSI score was 243.94±31.15 before the psychoeducation course and 248.92±42.59 afterwards. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of both scales before and after the psychoeducation program.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The psychoeducation program prepared to meet the needs of the female prisoners studied had a positive effect on their social skills and problem-solving skills. The addition of psychoeducation programs to the educational programs offered in penal institutions could be very beneficial. Additional studies with control group monitoring are recommended.

4.Moral intelligence and its relationship to resilience among nursing students in Iran
Hossein Namdar Areshtanab, Rana Rezvani, Hossein Ebrahimi, Mohammad Arshadi Bostanabad, Mina Hosseinzadeh
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.49368  Pages 9 - 14
INTRODUCTION: In the nursing profession, moral intelligence and resilience are essential components for ethical decision-making and coping with stress. The aim of the present study was to examine moral intelligence and its relationship to resilience in nursing students.
METHODS: A total of 280 nursing students at Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran, participated in this de-scriptive correlational study in 2017. The data collection instruments used were a demographic questionnaire, the Lennick and Kiel Moral Competency Inventory, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Analysis yielded descriptive statistics and inferential statistics about the data.
RESULTS: The mean moral intelligence score of the nursing students was 78.54±8.57 and there was a significant relationship between the total moral intelligence and resilience scores and their respective dimensions (p>0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the variables of age and grade point average demonstrated a significant relationship to resilience and moral intelligence and that these variables predicted 43% variance in resilience among the nursing students.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Given the importance of resilience in the stressful working environment of nursing and the effects that high moral intelligence can have on resilience, it is suggested that nursing managers emphasize moral intelligence in training, especially for nursing students and new nurses.

5.The effects of borderline personality and sociodemographic traits on self-harm and suicidal behavior in substance use disorder
Suzan Özdemir, Pervin Tunç
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.22599  Pages 15 - 23
INTRODUCTION: Borderline personality traits (BPT), which have a negative effect on the prognosis in substance use disorder (SUD), may increase the frequency of self-harming behavior (SHB) and suicidal behavior (SB). A determination of BPT may be a protective measure against SHB and SB. The objective of this study was to analyze the predictive role of BPT on SHB and SB in individuals diagnosed with SUD. The participants' sociodemographic data were also analyzed for contribution to the context.
METHODS: This cross-sectional research was conducted with inpatients at a single, private hospital psychiatric ward who had been diagnosed with SUD (n=122). The data were collected using the Borderline Personality Inventory, the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury, and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire.
RESULTS: The results demonstrated a predictive role of BPT and gender on SHB in individuals diagnosed with SUD. BPT, socioeconomic status, and education were found to be predictors of SB in individuals diagnosed with SUD.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results of the research demonstrated that the risk evaluation of SHB and SB in SUD is highly significant. BPT must be handled independently from substance abuse with the appropriate psychological interventions. The findings also indicated that the education and socioeconomic level of the patient were significant factors and that psychosocial support is essential for this high-risk group. Additional research could provide valuable information that would enable more efficient, targeted treatment strategies.

6.The effect of reflexology treatment on anxiety
Merve Uğuryol, Ayşegül Dönmez
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.05579  Pages 24 - 30
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reflexology therapy on anxiety in nursing students.
METHODS: This research was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study that included a control group. The population consisted of 648 students enrolled in the nursing faculty of Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey. A sociodemographic information form, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a visual analog scale to measure perceived anxiety were used to collect the study data. Descriptive analysis was used to present the findings, as well as the results of t-tests of dependent and independent groups, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing, and repeated measures ANOVA testing.
RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the BAI mean score was recorded in the case group following the application of foot reflexology in comparison with the control group. A significant difference was also seen in the mean scores of the case group in within-group comparison of the STAI state anxiety scale, but no significant difference was found in comparison with the control group. A statistically significant difference was observed between the mean perceived anxiety score of the individuals in the reflexology group.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Six sessions of foot reflexology treatment had a positive effect on anxiety symptoms.

7.The effects of physical restraint education on the knowledge and attitude of nurse interns
Büşra Ertuğrul, Dilek Özden
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.32704  Pages 31 - 42
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of training regarding the use of physical restraint of patients on the knowledge and attitude of nurse interns.
METHODS: This was an experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design. The population consisted of a total of 140 intern students attending the faculty of nursing of a single university in Turkey. Data related to demographic characteristics and experience were collected, and the respondents were also asked about alternative methods to physical restraint in an open-ended question during the pre-test phase. The Physical Restraint Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Scale was used to assess the students before and after a nursing care management class that included physical restraint training.
RESULTS: Most of the nurse interns (63.6%) stated that they had experienced the use of physical restraint; most (29.3%) had encountered the practice in a psychiatry clinic. A majority of the students indicated that the content of the under-graduate education regarding physical restraint was not sufficient (65.7%) and that they did not know about alternatives to physical restraint (80%). The mean post-test scores in the knowledge, attitude, and practice subdimensions of the scale were significantly higher than the pre-test scores recorded prior to the training (p≤.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the following items: “Residents may refuse to be placed in a restraint”(p≤.001; x2=0.03), “If physical restraints are to be used, it is required to have signed consent from a member of the patient’s family”(p=0.002; x2=7.98), and “Restraints should be released every 2 hours”(p=≤.001; x2=13.49) in the knowledge subdimension. Higher scores were also seen in many attitude subdimension items, such as “I feel that family members have the right to re-fuse the use of restraints” and “I feel guilty placing a resident in restraints,” and in the practice subdimension, improved scores were seen in items such as “I try alternative measures before restraining a resident” and “When I restrain a resident, I make this decision only with a physician’s order” after the training.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Detailed training on the use of physical restraint, including consideration of alternative techniques, rights, and legal aspects, significantly improved the knowledge and attitude the nurse interns. Additional observational studies of practice are recommended.

8.Awareness of child abuse and neglect among students
Gülzade Uysal, Gülçin Bozkurt, Duygu Sönmez Düzkaya
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.48751  Pages 43 - 48
INTRODUCTION: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the level of awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) among students at a private university in Istanbul, Turkey.
METHODS: The study sample comprised 1533 students from all faculties and colleges of the university selected using the stratified sampling method. A demographic information form and the Child Abuse and Neglect Awareness Scale (CANAS) were used to collect the study data.
RESULTS: The findings revealed that 30.5% of the students had received some instruction about CAN and 72.9% indicated that they wanted lectures on CAN to be added to the curriculum. The mean total score of the CANAS and the mean scores of the physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect subscales were statistically significantly higher among female students (p<0.05). The physical abuse and neglect subscale scores of students who had formal education on abuse were higher than those of students who had not (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The female students and those who had received instruction about abuse had greater awareness of abuse and neglect. Broader coverage in the curriculum may increase the awareness of all students and help to enhance public understanding.

9.The relationship between orthorexia nervosa tendencies and OCD symptoms in healthcare professionals
Güllü Yazkan, Nezihe Uğurlu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.87369  Pages 49 - 56
INTRODUCTION: Concurrent with the recent popularity of concepts related to organic nutrition, detoxification, healthy living, and natural products of many types, there has been a rise in the incidence of orthorexia nervosa, broadly defined as an excessive preoccupation with healthy eating. This condition is frequently observed among professionals for whom physical appearance is important, as well as doctors, nurses, dieticians, and others with medical knowledge of nutrition. Obsessive-compulsive disorder may accompany orthorexia. The aim of this study was to examine the association between orthorexic tendencies and obsessive-compulsive symptoms among healthcare personnel.
METHODS: The sample consisted of 183 male and female healthcare personnel aged 20–65 years who voluntarily participated in the study. A questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics. The ORTO-15 scale was used to measure orthorexic tendencies, and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) was used to assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
RESULTS: There was a statistically significant relationship between orthorexic tendencies and age, sex, a diagnosis of chronic disease, regular use of medication, and observing a specific diet (p<0.05). The mean ORTO-15 score was 37.56±4.42 (female: 37.18±4.36, male: 38.48±4.45). The mean MOCI score was 61.90±6.80, and there was a statistically significant correlation between these values. Analysis of the subscales and the overall score also revealed a statistically significant relationship.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results revealed a statistically significant difference in orthorexic tendencies based on age and sex (p<0.05). No statistically significant relationship was detected in the ORTO-15 scores by body mass index values. A statistically significant difference was detected in the MOCI score according to the marital status, sex, and education variables (p<0.01). There was also a statistically significant difference seen in the evaluation of the ORTO-15 score and the MOCI score. The findings indicated an association between orthorexic tendencies and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

10.Municipal workers’ mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic
Hatice İkiışık, Güven Turan, Feyza Kutay Yılmaz, Merve Kırlangıç, Işıl Maral
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.60437  Pages 57 - 66
INTRODUCTION: The ongoing coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has a documented, continuing, adverse effect on mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate aspects of the mental health of municipal employees who, like healthcare professionals, provide necessary services and have to work despite pandemic conditions.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2020 with Istanbul district municipality employees who continued to work during the initial pandemic period of March-May 2020. The data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 item scale (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale via online survey.
RESULTS: The average age of the 775 participants was 40.2±8.0 years and 75.7% of the group was male. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) was observed in 18.5% of the participants, and moderate-severe depression was recorded in 16.1%. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed a greater risk for depression and GAD, respectively, among those in the 30-39 age group (odds ratio [OR]: 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-5.79, p=0.027; OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.07-2.78, p=0.025), interacting with ≥20 people a day at work (OR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.30-5.74, p=0.008; OR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.32-5.60, p=.006). In addition, female participants (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.07-2.86, p=0.026) and those with a shortened work schedule (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.43-3.68, p=0.001) were at greater risk for anxiety, and those who had shift work (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.21-3.56, p=0.007) were at greater risk for depression.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Among the municipal employees studied, women, those under the age of 40, those who worked a shorter schedule or alternating shifts, those who considered the physical workload to be heavy, those who interacted with the public during the course of their work, those who had a diagnosis of COVID-19 in their immediate circle, and those who had been in contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19 were at risk for GAD and depression. A multi-sectoral approach is required for successful epidemic control. Continuity of community mental health services that include primary, secondary, and tertiary protection should be ensured, employees at risk should be identified, and appropriate support provided for psychological treatment.

11.Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Moral Injury Symptom Scale- Healthcare Professional
Gonca Üstün
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.34603  Pages 67 - 75
INTRODUCTION: This study was carried out to examine the validity and reliability of a Turkish version of the Moral Injury Symptom Scale-Healthcare Professional (MISS-HP).
METHODS: This methodological study was performed with 125 nurses working in hospitals in Turkey in March-April 2021 using online forms. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and IBM SPSS AMOS Version 21.0 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) were used to perform the analysis.
RESULTS: The linguistic validity of the MISS-HP was assessed using the translation-back translation technique and ex-pert opinions. The sample size was found to be sufficient and suitable for factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0.888, chisquared=1067.959, degrees of freedom [DF]=45, p=0.000). A 3-factor structure with 10 items was determined, and the factor load of the items ranged from 0.84 to 0.94. The fit index values were acceptable and within the limits of perfect agreement (minimum discrepancy/DF [CMIN/DF]=1.712, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.076, standardized root mean squared residual [SRMR]=0.045, adjusted goodness-of-fit index [AGFI]=0.856, goodness-of-fit index [GFI]=0.916, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI]=0.970, relative fit index [RFI]=0.930, incremental fit index [IFI]=0.979, normed fit index [NFI]=0.950, comparative fit index [CFI]=0.978). Average variance extracted values >0.50 and composite reliability values >0.70 for each factor confirmed convergent and divergent validity of the scale. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was 0.91 and the split-half reliability coefficient was 0.95. There was a statistically significant, moderate, positive correlation was seen between the Compassion Fatigue-Short Scale (CF-SS) and the MISS-HP scores (r=0.446, p=0.000).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The Turkish version of the MISS-HP is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate moral injury in healthcare professionals.

12.Nursing student attitudes toward nursing profession and their state anxiety level during COVID-19 outbreak
Arzu Yüksel, Emel Bahadır Yılmaz
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.39205  Pages 76 - 82
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to investigate nursing students’ attitudes toward the nursing profession and examine their state anxiety level during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS: The population for this descriptive research was Turkish university nursing students. The study sample con-sisted of 1653 nursing students who participated in the study between April 25 and May 10, 2020. The Attitude Scale for Nursing Profession (ASNP) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to collect the study data. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Spearman correlation test were used to evaluate the findings.
RESULTS: The mean score of the preference for the nursing profession (PNP) subscale of the ASNP was 51.13±8.61 and the mean score of the general attitude toward the nursing profession (GATNP) subscale score was 34.82±2.80. The mean STAI mean score was 43.95±11.17. There was a weak, negative relationship between the STAI and the PNP (r=-0.279) and the GATNP (r=-0.140) (p<0.05). The 2 most important predictors of state anxiety level were motivation to join the nursing profession and being a female (p<0.01).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The students who participated in the study reported a moderate state anxiety level. Mental health assessments of student nurses are recommended, as well as efforts to increase their psychological resilience and ability to cope with stress.

13.Investigation of the psychometric properties of the stigma section of the Family Interview Schedule
Zekiye Çetinkaya Duman, Figen Şengün İnan, Ayşe Sarı
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.58569  Pages 83 - 91
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to adapt the stigma subdimension of the Family Interview Schedule (FIS) developed for a World Health Organization study for use with a Turkish population and to conduct a validity and reliability assessment of the instrument.
METHODS: The study sample consisted of 141 family members who presented at the Adult Psychiatry Inpatient and Outpatient Unit of a university hospital and the Izmir Schizophrenia Solidarity Association between May 2019 and November 2020 who met the sampling criteria. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years, literacy, family member of a patient with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or a mood disorder. Internal consistency analysis and test–retest analysis were performed to assess reliability, and validity was evaluated using language validity analysis, content validity analysis, and exploratory factor analysis.
RESULTS: The content validity index of the stigma section of the FIS was 0.96, and a Cronbach alpha level of 0.81 was determined. The Spearman correlation coefficient of test-retest reliability between 2 measurements was 0.86.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results of the present study demonstrated that the Turkish version of the stigma section of the FIS created is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to assess the stigma experiences of family members of people with chronic mental illness in Turkey.

14.A systematic review of detailed neurological and psychiatric manifestations in patients with COVID-19
Semra Bülbüloğlu, Nermin Gürhan
doi: 10.14744/phd.2021.71324  Pages 92 - 99
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this research was to conduct a systematic review of studies examining neurological and psychiatric disorders in patients diagnosed with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).
METHODS: This review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. Related studies and case reports published in the ScienceDirect, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, and Scopus databases between December 1, 2019 and September 1, 2020 were examined, and 21 studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in the review. The data gathered were summarized and analyzed.
RESULTS: All of the studies included were descriptive in nature. The most common findings were headache, central nervous system problems, cerebrovascular events, and polyneuropathy. Dizziness, Guillain-Barré syndrome, ischemic problems, and encephalopathy were among the other neuropsychiatric findings.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Important psychiatric and neurological problems may begin with onset of COVID-19 and continue to have post-recovery effects. The results of this study indicated that neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms were common in COVID-19 patients and can prolong the recovery period. These data may raise awareness among clinicians and help them develop a care plan for neuropsychiatric problems in COVID-19 patients.

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