Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 15 (2)
Volume: 15  Issue: 2 - 2024
FRONTMATTER
1.Front Matter

Pages I - IV

EDITORIAL
2.Editorial
Karan Kverno
Page V

RESEARCH ARTICLE
3.Burnout and job satisfaction among nurses in northwestern Syria during war time
Nassan Ali Al Ahmad, Heba Mohamed, Khaled Aldaeif, Mhmoud Al Abedalrzak, Murhaf Aldugiem
doi: 10.14744/phd.2024.56667  Pages 104 - 112
INTRODUCTION: The Syria war increased the number of injured and wounded victims, which in turn increased the workload on the nursing staff. Experiencing frequent psychological exhaustion may increase nurses’ burnout, which negatively affects their performance, production, patient output, and job satisfaction.
METHODS: Our study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A convenience sample of 60 nurses from three hospitals was utilized in the study.
RESULTS: The findings from this study showed a significant negative relationship between burnout and job satisfaction.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The study considers the number of nurses in relation to the number of patients and provides respitetype care for nurses who reach significant emotional exhaustion.

4.Psychosocial care proficiency self-assessment and related factors of nurses with postgraduate education
Nihan Altan Sarıkaya, İmren Duva
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.89166  Pages 113 - 119
INTRODUCTION: Nurses’ understanding of the value of prioritizing psychosocial care and developing skills for psychosocial care have an important place in all areas of nursing. This research was carried out to determine the nurses with post-graduate education their psychosocial care proficiency self-assessment and the factors related to them.
METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted with 56 nurses with postgraduate education working in a research and practice hospital. Research data were collected with a descriptive information form, the psychosocial care proficiency self-assessment scale (PCPSAS).
RESULTS: The mean score of the nurses participating in the study was 75.23±11.20 in PCPSAS, and the scores they got in the sub-dimensions of “Symptom diagnosis,” “Using information,” “Intervention” and “Diagnostics” were 21.50±2.87, respectively; 21.05±3.51; 16.14±3.09; It was determined to be 16.53±2.76. It was found that the total score of PCPSAS and the sub-dimensions of using information, intervention, and diagnosis differed significantly according to the level of postgraduate education, and the scores of the intervention sub-dimension differed significantly according to age and gender (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: As a result of the study, it was determined that nurses with postgraduate education considered themselves competent in psychosocial care, while there were significant differences in terms of competence in using information, intervention, and diagnosis according to education level, and in self-assessment of competence in psychosocial interventions according to age and gender. It may be recommended that education and evidence-based practices that emphasize the value of prioritizing psychosocial care be added to all graduate nursing programs.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
5.Effects of online-guided group self-help program on female nursing students’ attempts to cope with their emotional eating and uncontrolled eating behaviors: A quasi-experimental study
Gülsüm Zekiye Tuncer, Zekiye Çetinkaya Duman
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.54926  Pages 120 - 131
INTRODUCTION: Short-term internet-based and online group cognitive behavioral therapy practices affect young people’s and women’s attempts to cope with their emotional eating (EE) and uncontrolled eating (UE) behaviors in the long term. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an online- guided self-help group program (GSH) on healthy female nursing students’ EE and UE behaviors.
METHODS: This quasi-experimental study without a control group which has the pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design was carried out with 24 3rd- and 4th-year young female nursing students studying at a Faculty of Nursing between March 2021 and June 2021. The data were collected using three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) and an emotional eater questionnaire (EEQ). The online group GSH consists of six online group sessions.
RESULTS: In the study, the mean scores the students obtained from the data collection tools in terms of such variables as thinking that they eat fast, weighing status, feeling negative about their weight, and being satisfied with their body image changed for the better significantly right after the online group GSH (p<0.05). The mean scores the students obtained from sub-dimensions of the TFEQ (χ2=15.205, p<0.001; χ2=31.224, p<0.001) and from the EEQ (χ2=21.622, p<0.001) decreased right after and 6 months after the online group GSH.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In this study, the online group GSH conducted with female nursing students affected their coping with EE and UE behaviors positively. This suggests that self-help interventions can be implemented to improve the eating behaviors of female.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
6.Care burden and depression levels in the relatives of patients with bipolar disorder
Halis Yılmaz, Fatma Demirkıran
doi: 10.14744/phd.2024.09634  Pages 132 - 140
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD) is an affective disorder characterized by a chronic course and places a heavy financial and moral burden on caregivers. The study was carried out to identify care burden, depression, and related factors in the caregivers of bipolar patients.
METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on the relatives of 71 BD-diagnosed patients hospitalized in the psychiatry clinic of a tertiary hospital. Data were collected using the introductory information form, the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
RESULTS: The mean age of the caregivers was 47.55±9.03, and 52.1% of them were women. A significant difference was evident between the BDI scores of caregivers, being single, having a low education level, not working in any job, not having any social security, living in an extended family, needing a helper in caring for their patients, having a physical illness and increasing the number of children they have (p<0.05). The relationship between the Zarit Scale scores and the caregivers’ lack of social security, closeness to their patients as a spouse, child, or sibling, and living in a different house from the patients also yielded a significant difference (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Providing psychoeducation to caregivers concerning coping skills, stress management, and symptoms and episodes of the disease may bring benefits in alleviating their care burden and depression symptoms.

7.Turkish validity and reliability study of the recovery process inventory in individuals with mental illness
Haydar Mehmet Kaya, Nermin Gürhan
doi: 10.14744/phd.2024.37650  Pages 141 - 148
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Recovery Process Inventory (RPI), developed by Jerrell et al., in assessing the recovery process of individuals with mental illnesses receiving treatment in psychiatric clinics and community mental health centers.
METHODS: The research data were collected using a Demographic Information Form, RPI, and Recovery Assessment Scale. The study data were gathered through face-to-face interviews with 250 individuals who consented to participate and were receiving treatment at a psychiatric clinic and a community mental health center between August 01, 2019, and July 31, 2020. The participants had an average age of 40.99±13.063 with a standard deviation. Regarding the participants’ gender, 36% were female and 64% were male. As for marital status, 30.8% were married, 54% were single, 12.8% were divorced, and 2.4% were widowed. The validity and reliability assessment of the scale encompassed analyses of language, content, face validity, construct validity, and reliability.
RESULTS: The analysis results indicated that the RPI consisted of six factors, with eigenvalues above 1. The identified six factors were found to collectively account for a significant portion of the total variance and variance related to the scale items. The inventory was considered valid. The internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the RPI was calculated as 0.828, indicating a reliable level of measurement.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The Turkish adaptation of the RPI, consisting of 26 items and six subscales, was determined to be a valid and reliable inventory. The inventory can be utilized to assess the recovery processes of psychiatric patients.

8.Validity and reliability of the palliative nursing care quality scale in Türkiye
Sevcan Toptaş Kılıç, Fatma Öz
doi: 10.14744/phd.2024.08831  Pages 149 - 156
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Palliative Nursing Care Quality Scale (PNCQS) in nursing in Türkiye. Measurement tools are important in the evaluation of care quality. It is important to assess the quality of care provided by nurses to improve the well-being of palliative patients.
METHODS: This was a methodological study. This was conducted in Türkiye. The study sample included a total of 210 participants. Linguistic validity, content validity, item validity (item difficulty and discriminating index), and construct validity were tested for the validity of the scale. The reliability of the tool was evaluated by conducting internal consistency and a split-half-test analysis.
RESULTS: Internal consistency is high for all domains of the PNCQS (Cronbach’s α ≥0.91). While the content validity index (CVI) for the items varies between 0.81 and 1.00, the CVI for the scale (Scale-CVI) is 0.92. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, fit indices of the scale (χ2/df [2.136], GFI [0.85], adjusted good fit index [0.80], comparative fit index [0.91], normed fit index [0.85], Tucker–Lewis index [0.89], and root mean square error of approximation [0.075]).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The PNCQS-TR is a valid and reliable tool for palliative nursing in the Turkish community.

9.Subjective well-being, mental health enhancing knowledge level, and related factors in adolescents
Vesile Adıgüzel, Neşe Mercan, Sabahat Çoşkun, Celale Tangül Özcan
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.65872  Pages 157 - 165
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between adolescents’ subjective well-being, their level of knowledge enhancing mental health, and related factors.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 387 students between June 2021 and December 2021. Data were collected from the Sociodemographic Characteristics Collection Form, the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale (ASWS), and the Mental Health Improvement Information Scale (MHIIS). Number, percentage, mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values in the descriptive analysis of the data; In comparative/relational analyses, Spearman correlation test, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used because the variables did not conform to normal distribution.
RESULTS: The ages of the students participating in the study are between 14 and 21, 74.7% of them are girls and 68.7% of them are high school students. It was determined that there was a positive and significant relationship between the MHIIS score and the scores of ASWS and the sub-dimensions of the scale: Satisfaction in family relationships, satisfaction in relationships with important people, life satisfaction and positive emotions (p<0.0001). It was determined that there was a significant difference between the total score of ASWS and demographic data such as gender, education status, income status, being diagnosed with a mental illness, receiving mental support, and being diagnosed with a mental illness in the family. It was determined that there was a significant difference between the total score of MHIIS and the variables of educational status, educational status of parents, being diagnosed with a mental illness, receiving mental support, and being diagnosed with a mental illness in the family.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In the study, it was determined that there was a positive and significant relationship between the mental health-promoting knowledge level of adolescents and their subjective well-being.

10.Examining the correlation between smartphone addiction and social and emotional loneliness levels of nursing students
Merve Kızılırmak Tatu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.93707  Pages 166 - 174
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between nursing students’ smartphone addiction and their social and emotional loneliness levels.
METHODS: This study was designed as a descriptive-cross-sectional trial. The study was conducted between May 15, 2022, and June 30, 2022. The sample of the study consisted of students (n=243) who met the inclusion criteria and voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected using the “Personal Information Form,” “Smartphone Addiction Scale” (SAS), and “Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale (SELSA-S).”
RESULTS: It was found that the students’ mean scores were 29.89±10.75 in the SAS-Short Version and 58.62±11.14 in the SELSA-S. Men’s family emotional loneliness levels were higher than the levels of the women; 4th-year students had lower levels of smartphone addiction and higher levels of social loneliness. Romantic emotional loneliness levels of the students who used smartphones for communication-chat were higher than those who use smartphones for entertainment-music and social media. Those with insufficient friendship and family relationships had higher smartphone addiction levels.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A significant correlation was found between smartphone addiction and social and emotional loneliness. As the level of smartphone addiction increased, the level of social and emotional loneliness increased. It is recommended to implement programs to fight smartphone addiction to protect and promote the psychological health of university students.

11.Child delirium assessment scale: Validity and reliability study
Engin Turan, Gülay Manav, Gülbeyaz Baran
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.39145  Pages 175 - 184
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to develop the child delirium assessment scale to determine the factor structure and to determine its validity and reliability.
METHODS: The sample of the methodological type study consists of 105 children who were admitted to the third-level pediatric intensive care unit of a public hospital in a province in eastern Türkiye between February and May 2019 and met the inclusion criteria. Content and construct validity and reliability analyses of the items created using the Delphi technique were performed.
RESULTS: In the exploratory factor analysis of 28 items obtained with the Delphi technique, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 28 items explaining 49.99% of the total variance was obtained. In confirmatory factor analysis, it was determined that the scale structure had sufficient fit indices. The Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.96, and the test half value was 0.91. There was a strong correlation between them and the Cornell Pediatric Delirium Scale used as a parallel test (r=0.957, p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study determined that the child delirium assessment scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool for nurses in determining delirium in children hospitalized in the intensive care unit.

12.The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and psychiatric nursing specialty
Emel Öztürk Turgut, Aytuğ Türk
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.98752  Pages 185 - 191
INTRODUCTION: The fact that distance education has been switched to with the pandemic and physical limitation measures have affected the thesis processes in postgraduate education. It is important for mental health and psychiatric nurses, who have roles in protecting and improving community mental health, to adapt to the developments and changes brought about by the pandemic in terms of crisis management and the long-term effects of the pandemic. Postgraduate dissertations for nursing care based on scientific results constitute important evidence. In the research, the adaptation of mental health and psychiatric nursing postgraduate dissertations to the special conditions of the pandemic was examined. The type of research, data collection methods, interventions, and the reflections of the pandemic on the dissertation topic were evaluated.
METHODS: In the descriptive type of research, the postgraduate dissertations were scanned on September 05, 2022, at the Council of Higher Education Thesis Center using the document review method. A total of 107 dissertations completed between 2020 and 2022 in the departments of Mental Health and Diseases Nursing, Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, permission to publish theses in the database, approved were examined, 62 disserta-tions that met the inclusion criteria were included in the research.
RESULTS: Five of the dissertations included in the research are doctoral dissertations. It was determined that 75.8% of the dissertations were descriptive, descriptive-cross-sectional, and descriptive-relational types, 51.6% of the data were obtained by face-to-face interview, and 27.4% of the sample group were nurses and health workers. It has been determined that research has been conducted with patients who are diagnosed with coronavirus disease -19 and nursing nurses.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It has been determined that descriptive, descriptive-cross-sectional, and descriptive-relational type of research is intensive in master’s degree dissertations, and this situation was similar before the pandemic. In experimental and semi-experimental dissertations, distance and hybrid intervention programs have shown the importance of telepsychiatry/tele mental health applications. It has been determined that the data are often obtained face-to-face, distance and hybrid methods are used in intervention programs, and the pandemic is included in the dissertations topics.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
13.The effect of an emotional development psychoeducation program on the emotion management skills and caregiver burden of caregivers patients with mental illness: A randomized clinical trial
Nihan Altan Sarıkaya, Sevim Buzlu, Güzide Tuna Yener Örüm
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.03708  Pages 192 - 200
INTRODUCTION: This study used an experimental, pre-test–post-test control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effect of an emotional development psychoeducation program (EDPP) on the emotion management skills and caregiver burden of caregivers of patients with mental illness.
METHODS: The study was conducted in the Community Mental Health Centers (CMHC) affiliated with the Bakirkoy Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital. The sample consisted of 61 caregivers (experimental: 31 and control: 30) who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected using a Caregiver Demographics Questionnaire, the Emotion Management Skills Inventory (EMSI), and the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI).
RESULTS: All participants had similar demographic characteristics. There was no significant difference in pre-test EMSI and CBI scores between the experimental and control groups. The experimental group had a significantly higher post-test EMSI score than the control group. Although the experimental group had a lower post-test CBI score than the control group, the difference was statistically insignificant.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Health-care administrators should inform CMHC nurses about EDPPs and encourage them to attend them regularly.

REVIEW
14.Bibliometric analysis of Türkiye-origin randomized controlled studies indexed in the Web of Science core collection database in psychiatric nursing
Mustafa Sabri Kovancı, Duygu Hiçdurmaz
doi: 10.14744/phd.2024.26032  Pages 201 - 211
This study aimed to conduct a bibliometric analysis of prominent study areas, changes, and developments in randomized controlled studies from Türkiye, indexed in the Web of Science (WOS) Core Collection database within the field of psychiatric nursing. Research data comprised 82 randomized controlled studies between January 1, 1945, and December 31, 2021, retrieved from the WOS Core Collection database using the keywords “psychiatric” AND “nursing” AND “randomized controlled” OR “randomized controlled trial” OR “intervention.” Data were identified and analyzed using citation analysis, bibliographic matching, co-occurrence analysis, and co-author analysis through the VOSviewer 1.6.18 software program. Out of the 82 published studies, 72 (87.8%) were published in journals in the Q2 and Q3 quartiles. A significant increase in both the number of studies and citations received was observed after 2016. The average number of citations per article is 4.4. The prominent subjects in the studies were schizophrenia, psychiatric nursing, nursing, and nursing students; the most current topics were schizophrenia, nursing students, resilience/resilience, disability, hope and hopelessness, and psychodrama. It was seen that the institution with the highest number of publications was Istanbul University, and the institution with the highest number of citations was Akdeniz University. Despite the increasing number of randomized controlled studies in Türkiye, an un-even distribution was observed among universities and the overall number of publications and citations remained relatively low compared to the total number of universities. There is a pressing need to identify and address obstacles hindering the production of randomized controlled studies in the field of psychiatric nursing in Türkiye and to provide support for conducting more studies in this area.

15.Challenges of masked communication in healthcare and facilitating strategies
Yüksel Demirel
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.97769  Pages 212 - 217
Wearing a face mask is one of the main means of preventing the transmission of certain respiratory diseases. This measure, combined with social distancing and hand washing, helps to slow the spread and reduce transmission of the virus, especially among people who are expressed as asymptomatic carriers, while causing communication difficulties between patients and healthcare professionals. If strategies to cope with these difficulties are not developed, serious errors may occur in the field of health services. Because the field of health services is one of the service areas where it is vital to maintain communication without interruption. For this reason, the effective performance of the procedures requires that the health personnel understand the messages correctly and appropriately both in their communication with each other and with the patient and that the patients can adequately express their feelings and thoughts to the healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to reveal the difficulties and facilitating strategies of masked communication in health services during the COVID-19 process. The method of “document scanning-a literature review” was used as a way of data collection in the research. In this direction, the literature dealing with the importance of the face in expressing emotions in face-to-face communication and the difficulties caused by face masks in communication during the COVID-19 epidemic was scanned using keywords and various combinations of these words.

16.Psychosocial care after kidney transplantation: A case report
Ecemsu Emine Doğan, Nazik Yalnız, İlkay Keser
doi: 10.14744/phd.2024.82085  Pages 218 - 224
In the chronic kidney failure and transplantation process, which is a complex and dynamic multidimensional process, psychosocial needs are of particular importance and require individualized holistic nursing care. With this case report, it is aimed to evaluate the nursing biopsychosocial care given based on the Nursing Care Model of Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns. The patient had a health history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia, and chronic renal failure. He had a kidney transplant approximately 1 year ago. Frequent hospitalizations were made with recurrent infection, hyperthermia, and diarrhea due to the complication of ureteral rupture that started 1 month after transplantation. According to the data obtained, it was determined that the case was negatively affected psychosocially, these effects were seen in 11 sub-dimensions in the model, and the holistic nursing care offered was effective in managing the process. Since the disease and transplantation process is full of difficulties, it is recommended to apply individualized holistic nursing care and support the psychosocial dimension in nursing care in maintaining the individual’s well-being and increasing the success of treatment.

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