Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 14 (4)
Volume: 14  Issue: 4 - 2023
1.Front Matter

Pages I - IV

Çaylan Pektekin
Page V

3.The relationship between burnout level and ruminative thought styles and organizational forgiveness in nurses
Çiğdem Zengin, Oya Sevcan Orak
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.79058  Pages 287 - 297
INTRODUCTION: This study seeks to examine the relationship between the level of burnout in nurses and ruminative thought styles and organizational forgiveness.

METHODS: This descriptive and correlational study was conducted with 255 nurses working in a university hospital. Data collection tools were as follows: “Introductory Information Form,” “Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI),” “Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ),” and “Organizational Forgiveness Scale (OFS).” Descriptive statistics (number, percentage, mean, and standard deviation), independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation test were used in the analysis of the data.
RESULTS: It was determined that there was a positive relationship between the scores of the nurses’ emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced sense of personal achievement on the MBI and the scores of the RTSQ and a negative relationship between the scores of these subscales and the scores of the OFS (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It was concluded that as ruminative thoughts increase among nurses, the level of burnout increases, and as the level of organizational forgiveness increases, the level of burnout decreases.

4.Validity and reliability study for the Turkish version of the community integration scale for adults with psychiatric disorders
Eda Açıkgöz Atay, Derya Özbaş Gençarslan
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.80664  Pages 298 - 304
INTRODUCTION: This research was aimed to ensure the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the “Community Integration Scale for Adults with Psychiatric Disorders.”
METHODS: This methodological study was conducted with 170 patients with psychiatric disorders. Data were collected between June 2019 and October 2019. Research data were analyzed with Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) analysis, Barlett’s sample size test, factor analysis, cronbach’s α, correlation analysis, an independent t-test. Statistical analyses were made with IBM SPSS 22 and the Lisrel 8.8 program.
RESULTS: This study was conducted with 170 individuals with any of the diagnoses of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The KMO value of the scale was 0.864, and the Chi-square value was found as χ2: 5722.153. (p<0.001). As a result of explanatory factor analysis, it was determined that there was a five-factor structure. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, fit indices (χ2/df: 2.013, root mean square errors: 0.077, comparative goodness of fit index: 0.96, goodness of fit index: 0.84, p=0.000) were found to be significant. The scale’s Cronbach α=0.92, test-retest correlation of 0.84, and item-total score correlation were found to be high.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The scale is a valid and reliable tool for measuring the community integration level of adults with psychiatric disorders in the Turkish community.

5.The combination of occupational art therapy improves the quality of life for elderly in nursing homes
Ika Subekti Wulandari, Anis Laela Megasari, Wiwin Winarni, Erindra Budi Cahyanto, Kanthi Suratih, Sri Mulyani, Mujahidatul Musfiroh
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.68725  Pages 305 - 311
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the combination between occupational therapy and art therapy on quality of life (QoL) among the elderly in nursing homes.
METHODS: This study was conducted between January and June 2022. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test research design with a control group was conducted among 60 elderly in nursing homes located in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. The study participants were divided into two groups, which consisted of 30 participants in the control group and 30 participants in the intervention group. A purposive sampling technique was used to enroll the study participants. Data were collected using the validated Indonesian version of the Older People’s Quality of Life Questionnaire (OPQOL-brief), which consists of 13 questions. The paired t-test was used to investigate the difference in the OPQOL-brief score before and after the occupational art therapy intervention had been given for each group, while the unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences in the OPQOL-brief score between the intervention group and the control group.
RESULTS: The majority of the participants were between the ages of 61 and 65 years (43%), mostly women (78%), widow/widower (68%), and had primary school education (33%). Occupational art therapy effectively improves the QoL of the elderly living in nursing homes (p=0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Occupational art therapy significantly improves the QoL of the elderly and can be recommended as an alternative therapy for the elderly who live in health-care services, nursing homes, and in the community.

6.Codependency, gender equality, and sociodemographic variables as predictors of psychological well-being in homemakers
Hatice Tekin, Gülsüm Ançel
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.33239  Pages 312 - 320
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the gender equality, codependency, and sociodemographic variables as predictors of psychological well-being in homemakers.
METHODS: This descriptive and correlational study was conducted in three Ladies’ Mansions, which gave permission for the study, among 12 Ladies’ Mansions located in a central district of Ankara Province. The sample consisted of 263 homemakers who came to these mansions between March and November 2019. The data were collected using the “Personal Information Form,” the “Psychological Well-being Scale,” the “Gender Equality Scale,” and the “Codependency Assessment Tool.” Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 IBM software. Descriptive analysis methods were used to evaluate sociodemographic data, t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for comparison between groups and Pearson’s correlation test was used to examine the correlation between dependent variables, and stepwise regression analysis was applied to understand which independent variables predicted the dependent variable.
RESULTS: Only 19.7% of the homemakers had a high level of psychological well-being, 12.9% had a high level of gender equality perception and 21.3% had a low level of codependency characteristic. Gender, codependency, duration of marriage, age, and marital status significantly predicted psychological well-being, whereas other variables did not have a significant effect. All the predictive variables together accounted for 52.0% of the total variance in the total score of the “Psychological Well-being Scale.”
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The psychological well-being of homemakers is affected by gender equality, codependency, marriage duration, and increasing age, so it is closely related to homemaker roles. For this reason, protecting and promoting the mental health of homemakers should be one of the priority issues in the field of community mental health, and the correlation between the sociocultural dimension and the mental health of housewives should be examined more.

7.Aerobic exercise for individuals with depression
Tülay Yılmaz Bingöl, Havva Tel
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.80388  Pages 321 - 334
INTRODUCTION: This study is an intervention study conducted to determine the effect of aerobic exercise program on the quality of life, self-esteem, and depression level of individuals diagnosed with depression.
METHODS: The sample of the study consisted of a total of 60 patients, 30 of whom were in the study group, 30 of whom were in the comparison group, followed up with a diagnosis of depression in the psychiatry outpatient clinic. Research data were collected using the sociodemographic data form, WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck Depression Scale. To both groups, sociodemographic data form, WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck Depression Scale were applied at the beginning of the study, and scales were applied repeatedly at the end of the 1st month, 2nd month, and 3rd month. To the working group in the research, a 45-min aerobic exercise program was applied 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Research data – it was evaluated by Chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance in repeated measures.
RESULTS: After the aerobic exercise program, it was determined that the quality of life and self-esteem scores of the patients in the study group increased, and their body mass index (BMI) and depression levels decreased. After the aerobic exercise program, the BMI values of the individuals in the study group decreased significantly, BMI according to age, gender, marital status, occupation, and disease duration, between the quality of life and depression level, between the quality of life and depression level according to education level, the number of self by gender and occupation. It was found that there was a statistically significant difference between the scores.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise program – it was determined that it increased the quality of life and self-esteem scores of individuals and decreased their depression levels and BMI values.

8.Development of the psychiatric nursing course evaluation form and a validity-reliability study
Elif Deniz Kaçmaz, Leyla Baysan Arabacı, Caner Baysan
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.57614  Pages 335 - 342
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to develop the evaluation form for the psychiatric nursing course and to examine its validity and reliability.
METHODS: The methodologically designed study involved 272 undergraduate nursing students voluntarily participating in the theory and practice of psychiatric nursing course, out of a total enrollment of 375 students, during the period from April to July 2021. Data were collected through the “descriptive ınformation form” and “psychiatric nursing course evaluation form” (PNCEF) developed by the researchers. The data analysis employed SPSS-25 and AMOS-21 software packages. In the validity evaluation of the scale, content validity, construct validity, in reliability evaluation, internal consistency analyzes were performed.
RESULTS: 80.5% of the students were women, 76.1% of them took the theory of psychiatric nursing, 81.3% of them took the practice online (remotely), and only 28.7% of them stated that they gave nursing care to an individual with a psychiatric disorder. After the candidate items (57 items) of the PNCEF were evaluated by experts, 9 items were removed and the content validity index (CGI ) of the items was found to be 0.91. In construct validity evaluation, the form was factorable (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0.974), the scale confirmed the single-factor structure according to explanatory factor analysis, and factor loads were between 0.67 and 0.86. Split half Spearman-Brown reliability coefficient was 0.956. Internal consistency Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was 0.986 and 0.986. Item test correlation values were found to be between 0.546 and 0.840. As a result of the fit analysis, it was calculated as CFI=0.849, TLI=0.839, RMSEA=0.095, and Chi-square/df=3.452.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Following meticulous analyses, the conclusive version of the 43-item form demonstrated robust content and construct validity, quasi-test reliability, and internal consistency measured by Cronbach’s alpha. These findings affirm the form’s status as a valid and reliable instrument, adept at assessing student nurses’ perceptions within the undergraduate program concerning both theoretical and practical accomplishments in the mental health and psychiatric nursing course.

9.The effect of general health on the psychological well-being of post-operative liver transplantation patients receiving immunosuppressants
Pınar Harmancı, Semra Bülbüloğlu, Erman Yıldız
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.33230  Pages 343 - 348
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to examine the effect of general health status on the psychological well-being of liver transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy.
METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with the participation of 116 liver transplant recipients at the organ transplant institute of a research and practice hospital. We used personal information form, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and psychological well-being (PWB) scale to collect data and performed the data analysis using statistical packed for the social sciences 25.0 by IBM.
RESULTS: Of the participants, 50% were women and between the ages of 51–64 and 52.6% had less income than their expenses; 75.9% of the recipients had a chronic disease, 33.6% had diabetes mellitus, and 25.9% had coronary artery disease. The GHQ-12 total score was high for psychiatric disorders, while the PWB scale score was moderate. There was a statistically significant, positive, and strong relationship between general health and PWB (p<0.05, r=0.022).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: General health and PWB are two important factors that mutually affect each other. Recognizing the poor psychological state of liver transplant patients and improving their general health contributes to a good postoperative period. During the post-operative period, liver recipients should be carefully monitored, and their psychological state should be improved.

10.Problematic Internet use and cyberbullying in university students
Sibel Küçük, Dilek Uludaşdemir, Perver Karşıgil
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.26023  Pages 349 - 358
INTRODUCTION: Problematic Internet use can have a negative impact on the daily lives and communications of teenagers, who constitute the most active user base of the Internet, and can be accompanied by issues such as cyberbullying.
METHODS: The quantitative descriptive method was used in this study to examine the relationship between problematic Internet use and cyberbullying among university students. The study group of this research consisted of 883 students studying in the faculty of health sciences of a university in Ankara city center during 2018–2019 academic year. The data were collected using a sociodemographic features data form, Problematic Internet Use Scale (PIUS), and revised cyber bullying ınventory-II (RCBI-II). Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis H test statistics, and Spearman correlation analysis were used to evaluate the data.
RESULTS: The research found that the problematic Internet use of the participants is on the medium level. Furthermore, it was discovered that 56.4% of the participants participated in cyberbullying, and 66.5% were victims of cyberbullying. There was a positive, middle level, significant relationship between cyberbullying and cyber victimization, as well as a positive, weak, significant relationship between PIUS total score and cyberbullying and cyber victimization. The RCBI-II index score increased in parallel with the participants’ PIUS index score.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It is seen that the increase in the duration of Internet use increases the problematic Internet use, and the problematic Internet use increases the frequency of cyberbullying and victimization.

11.Multidimensional assessment of assertiveness: Assertiveness, passivity, and aggressivity scales
Cem Malakcıoğlu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.82956  Pages 359 - 368
INTRODUCTION: Assertiveness is among the fundamentals of therapeutic communication. It is a psychosocial protective factor for individuals and positively influencing others communicated with. In the literature, assertiveness is inversely related to aggressivity and passivity. It was aimed to examine the psychometric properties and interrelationships of assertiveness, aggression, and passivity scales developed for multidimensional assessment of assertiveness in this study.
METHODS: This is a scale development study. For content validity, items were evaluated by seven experts. The comprehensibility was verified by the pilot application (n=32). Data were collected from 755 medical students at İstanbul Medeniyet University in January 2022. For construct validity, both explanatory (n=423) and confirmatory (n=332) factor analyzes were used in separate groups. Data for test-retest reliabilities were collected at 4-week intervals (n=38). IBM SPSS 25 and AMOS 24 were used for analyses. Statistical assumptions were tested beforehand.
RESULTS: In each of assertiveness, aggression, and passivity dimensions; five items within three subdimensions were clustered. The subdimensions were named according to the literature: Openness, calmness, and kindness (Assertiveness); cruelty, unfairness, and furiousness (Aggressivity); introversion, shyness, and embarrassment (Passivity). The explained variances of dimensions were between 60 and 67% in EFA, and item factor loadings were between 0.49 and 0.90 in CFA. All correlations between items and scale scores were significant at 0.01 level. Test-retest reliabilities were all above 0.6 (p<001). Cronbach α internal consistency reliabilities were between 0.735 and 0.895.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Assertiveness, aggressivity, and passivity scales and their subscales can assess assertiveness multidimensionally, reliably, and validly. They can be used together or separately for assessment and research.

12.The relationship between eating habits and mental development in adolescents
Müberra Yıldız, Tuğçe Kaplan, Ilkay Keser
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.11298  Pages 369 - 377
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional psychiatry is a new and rapidly gaining term in the field of nutrition and mental health. It is reported that unhealthy diets are a risk factor for the development of psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. In this study, it was aimed to determine the relationship between adolescents’ eating habits and mental development.
METHODS: The study was conducted in a public high school. The 24-h dietary recall was used to examine the nutritional habits of adolescents. “Adolescence Mental Development Scale” was used to determine the psychological development of adolescents.
RESULTS: Of the 135 adolescents participating in the study, 59.3% are female. It was found that the consumption of carbohydrates, omega-6, riboflavin, folic acid, phosphorus, magnesium, dietary fiber, anthocyanin, etc., showed a statistically significant difference between individuals with positive and negative mental developments (p<0.05). Consumption of carbohydrates, omega-6, riboflavin, folic acid, phosphorus, magnesium, dietary fiber, anthocyanin, etc., was statistically significantly lower in individuals with negative mental developments (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: As a result of our study, it was observed that adolescents’ dietary contents had a significant effect on mental development.

13.Evaluation of the spiritual care needs of risky pregnants from the perspective of the patient and the clinician: A qualitative research
Özlem Doğan Yüksekol, Mihriban Ulucan, Nazlı Baltacı, Feyza Nazik
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.14826  Pages 378 - 386
INTRODUCTION: Being diagnosed with a risky pregnancy and complications developing during pregnancy cause both stress and uncertainty for women and their families, so women with risky pregnancies need spiritual care more. For this reason, this research was conducted to determine the spiritual care needs of risky pregnant women which require a multidisciplinary approach.
METHODS: The research is a phenomenological descriptive type of qualitative research. The study was completed with 20 participants, including 10 pregnant women who were hospitalized in the obstetrics and gynecology clinic and diagnosed with risky pregnancy, and 10 clinicians who were responsible for the care and treatment of pregnant women in the clinic. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form. Data analysis was supported by the MaxQda 2020 Pro package program
RESULTS: The two themes that emerged in this study are the perspectives of pregnant women and the perspectives of clinicians. Each theme is categorized as spirituality and spiritual care perceptions, spiritual care needs and experiences, and barriers to spiritual care.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: According to the findings obtained from the study, it is seen that the views of pregnant women and clinicians on spiritual care are similar. Supportive relationships and providing respectful maternal care are among the spiritual care needs of women with risky pregnancies, and these help to maintain the spiritual well-being of pregnant women.

14.Taking the trauma out of mental health clinical rotation
Kathy Stanton
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.01328  Pages 387 - 389
While clinical rotations during nursing school have been noted to be stressful and anxiety-provoking for students, mental health clinical tends to be exceptionally challenging for students from an emotional perspective. Students are often placed in unpredictable situations on locked units with meager supervision. While nursing schools cannot directly improve the supervision on these units or reduce the degree of unpredictability, clinical instructors can take measures to improve safety and lessen students’ anxiety. This article details a collection of five practices that mental health clinical nursing instructors can use to improve the clinical experience for students, putting adequate support in place to facilitate learning.

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