Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 14 (2)
Volume: 14  Issue: 2 - 2023

Pages I - IV

Nurhan Eren
Page V

3.The effect of the pandemic on the professional values of nurses in Türkiye: a phenomenological approach
Gamze Özbek Güven, Şerife Yılmaz
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.88896  Pages 87 - 93
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic affected healthcare professionals as well as all sectors of society. Nurses working in close contact with patients were particularly affected during this process, and it is important to reveal its effects on the professional values of nurses. This study aims to explore the effect of the pandemic on the professional values of nurses caring for patients with COVID-19.
METHODS: A descriptive phenomenological research method was used in the study. The research was conducted with 20 nurses who care for patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care units of different provinces of Türkiye. A semi-structured interview form prepared based on the literature was used to collect the data, which were obtained by the researchers through face-to-face interviews.
RESULTS: In this study, five categories with themes and subthemes emerged: (1) the professional values of nurses during the pandemic; (2) the impact of the pandemic on professional values; (3) the emotional state of nurses regarding the pandemic process; (4) the support factors of nurses in the pandemic process; and (5) the expectations of nurses. It was revealed that the professional values of nurses were affected during the pandemic process. The situations that made nurses feel bad, weak, good, and strong during the pandemic process and what their expectations were determined.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In our study, we found that nurses managed to preserve their professional values even when they worked under difficult conditions during the pandemic. They have shown that they have an important role in the health army during the pandemic process with the values they maintain by strengthening the opposite without losing. It is important to transfer the experiences of nurses during the pandemic to the new generation of nurses and conduct training to maintain professional values.

4.Problems between parents and adolescents’ relationships: a qualitative study
Leila Norouzi Panahi, Maryam Modarres, Hossein Namdar Areshtanab
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.38159  Pages 94 - 102
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a stage of life in which fast cognitive, biological, and neurological changes occur that significantly affect one’s relationships and psychosocial functioning. Behavioral problems in adolescence are influenced by parent–adolescent relationships and family functions, which may result in emotional, physiological, and social disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relationship problems experienced by Iranian parents in dealing with their teenage children aged 11–16 years.
METHODS: This study was conducted through a qualitative content analysis. A purposive sample group of 30 parents from four healthcare systems and four school counselors from two public and two private schools in Tabriz, Iran, were recruited. The study period was from November 2018 to January 2019. Data was collected through semistructured and face-to-face interviews with parents of teenage children. The interviews were voice-recorded and manually transcribed for the following content analysis scheme.
RESULTS: After eliminating similar codes in the data analysis process, 175 codes, 21 subcategories, 5 categories, and 2 themes were extracted from the parents and school counselors’ experiences regarding adolescents’ relationship problems. The two categories that emerged from the analysis were (1) atmosphere of home and (2) parenting style.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Parents and counselors’ perception of relationship problems was categorized into two themes: atmosphere of home and parenting style. It was found that an inadequate adolescent psychological atmosphere at home and inappropriate parenting style cause many problems between parents and adolescents. Based on the findings, these conditions should be considered when designing suitable educational programs for promoting adolescents’ health and implementing required family interventions to prevent issues in adulthood.

5.Relationship between moral distress, compassion fatigue, and burnout levels of psychiatric nurses
Ebru Kaya, Nesibe Günay Molu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.09582  Pages 103 - 111
INTRODUCTION: This was a descriptive and correlational study conducted to determine the moral distress, compassion fatigue, and burnout levels of psychiatric nurses.
METHODS: The study sample consisted of 107 nurses in psychiatric clinics of hospitals in Konya province. Data were collected using the personal information form, Moral Distress Scale for Psychiatric Nurses (MDSP), Compassion Fatigue Subscale of the Quality-of-Life Scale for Employees (CFS), and Burnout Measure (BM). The data were evaluated using t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analyses.
RESULTS: The nurses’ mean MDSP score was 1.65±1.23; mean CFS score, 1.0±0.75; and mean BM score, 3.01±1.08. A significant positive relationship was observed between the nurses’ MDSP, CFS, and BM scores. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference between their demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, marital status, educational level, and mean MDSP, CFS, and BM scores (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed between vocational characteristics such as work position, shifts, job satisfaction, satisfaction with psychiatry, ethics education, frequency of ethical situations, ethical problems with the team, ethical issues related to patients and relatives, and mean MDSP, CFS, and BM scores (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A positive relationship between the psychiatric nurses’ mean MDSP, CFS, and BM scores were observed. In addition, compassion fatigue and burnout levels were found to increase as the moral distress level of the nurses increased.

6.The moderating role of resilience in the relationship between symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide ideation among firefighters in Türkiye
Yücel Şavklı, Filiz Şükrü Gürbüz
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.46034  Pages 112 - 119
INTRODUCTION: Given that firefighters are exposed to dangerous and emotionally intense situations, along with the threat of injury or death during their job, they are more likely to experience not only post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms but also the risk of suicide ideation. This study aims to analyze the moderating role of resilience in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicide ideation.
METHODS: The purposeful sample in this cross-sectional and correlational study consisted of 316 firefighters. The data were collected with the demographic form, Brief Resilience Scale, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale, and the Scale for Suicide Ideation. To analyze the data, a moderator analysis was employed using the SPSS process macro (Model II).
RESULTS: It was concluded that traumatic stress symptoms experienced at elevated levels were related to an increase in suicide ideation (p<0.05). Resilience was not directly effective on suicide ideation (p>0.05). The relationship between traumatic stress symptoms and suicide ideation was significant at low resilience levels (p<0.05) but not significant at medium and high resilience levels (p>0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Firefighters with high number of PTDS symptoms present more suicidal ideation especially when presenting lower levels of resilience. Therefore, psychological programs to firefighters must have a strong resilience-building component.

7.Stigmatization of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic: their psychosocial states and the factors affecting them
Cigdem Tekin, Neşe Karakaş, Sami Akbulut, Harun Kurt, Recep Bentli
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.83436  Pages 120 - 129
INTRODUCTION: It is assumed that healthcare professionals are directly or indirectly subjected to stigma during the COVID-19 pandemic, impacting their psychosocial health. This study aimed to evaluate the psychosocial status of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic and examine the factors affecting their exposure to stigma.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study included all healthcare professionals (n=1132) working in primary and secondary healthcare institutions in Malatya Province. Descriptive questions were asked to measure the stigma experienced by healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Insomnia Severity Index were used to evaluate psychosocial health status.
RESULTS: Of the participants, 68.7% stated that they were exposed to stigma because they are healthcare professionals. The findings indicated that 72.1% of those who felt stigmatized for being a healthcare professional suffered from moderate or severe depression, and 66.9% suffered from subthreshold or moderate insomnia. When their current health state was compared with that before the pandemic, 25.0% said that it became worse\much worse.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that most participants had been exposed to stigmatization because they are healthcare professionals. The participants who were exposed to stigma were found to suffer more from depression and insomnia. When their current health state was compared with that before the pandemic, one of every four participants stated that it became worse/much worse.

8.Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the prejudice toward people with mental illness scale
Gizem Şahin Bayındır, Nüvit Atay, Sevim Buzlu, Gökçe Çiçek Yavaş
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.68916  Pages 130 - 136
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to assess the validity–reliability and psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Prejudice toward People with Mental Illness scale.
METHODS: This was a methodological study conducted between June 1, 2021, and September 1, 2021. The sample of this study consisted of 297 people who were registered at a family health center in Gaziosmanpaşa. The personal information form consisted of 17 questions. It had eight sociodemographic characteristics questions and nine situations participants might find themselves in with people with mental illness. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, item–total correlation, test–retest correlation, Pearson correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used. According to experts’ opinions, the content validity index of the items was 0.97.
RESULTS: As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, it was determined that the scale had a four-factor structure and consisted of 19 items. The item–total correlations of the Turkish version of the scale ranged from r=0.30 to r=0.68. The total Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.86. Test–retest correlations were found to be statistically significant for the total scale and subscales (r=0.48; p<0.01).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The Turkish version of the Prejudice toward People with Mental Illness scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used in the evaluation of prejudice toward people with mental illness in the Turkish community. This scale is also suggested to be used for assessing the efficacy of interventions to reduce public prejudice toward people with mental illness.

9.Comparing the effectiveness of therapeutic play and storytelling on preoperative anxiety in preschool-age children: a randomized controlled trial
Zahra Alehamid, Kourosh Zarea, Shahnaz Rostami, Saeed Ghanbari, Ashraf Tashakori
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.46690  Pages 137 - 145
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of storytelling and therapeutic play intervention on preoperative anxiety in preschool-age children at a general hospital.
METHODS: This randomized clinical trial involved 102 children admitted for surgery who were randomly assigned to three groups. In terms of inclusion criteria, the first group received storytelling intervention, the second group received therapeutic play, and the control group received routine care from the operating room. Anxiety levels were recorded before and after the interventions based on the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress–Revised. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and the Kruskal– Wallis test by using SPSS22 software.
RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 59.75 months, and no significant difference was found between the three studied groups in terms of age (p=0.176); 74.7% of the children were boys and 25.3% were girls. Furthermore, a significant difference existed between the mean scores of anxieties before and after intervention in all three groups; thus, there was a 1.2-unit reduction in anxiety in the therapeutic play group (p<0.001), a 0.6 reduction in the storytelling group (p=0.001), and a 1.2-unit increase in the control group (p<0.00).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated that both therapeutic play and storytelling were effective in reducing preoperative anxiety in children; nevertheless, therapeutic play was more effective than storytelling. Healthcare providers can use play and storytelling interventions to reduce the anxiety of children and their families before surgery in healthcare centers.

10.Professional attitude and self-respect of generation X and Y nurses
Özgül Eycan, Sevim Ulupinar
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.49344  Pages 146 - 154
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate Generation X and Y nurses’ attitudes toward the profession and their professional self-respect.
METHODS: This is a descriptive study. The sample comprised 356 nurses working in a hospital and family health center. The data were collected using an information form regarding sociodemographic and professional characteristics, the Attitude Scale for Nursing Profession, and the Scale of Professional Self-respect.
RESULTS: Of the nurses, 28.1% were from Generation X and 71.9% were from Generation Y. Attitudes toward the profession and professional self-respect were positive in Generation X and Y nurses. Attitudes toward the profession scores were higher for Generation X than for Generation Y nurses; however, no difference was found between the generations in professional self-respect.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A positive, moderate-level significant relationship was found between professional self-respect and attitudes toward nursing in both Generations X and Y. The study results can be utilized to strengthen nurses’ professional attitudes and self-respect and to develop recommendations for effective teamwork for nurses in different generations.

11.The relationship between the beliefs of students studying at the faculty of health sciences toward mental illnesses and their personality types
Şulenur Eski, Hazal Sevindik, Merve Inan Budak, Vesile Adıgüzel
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.25593  Pages 155 - 164
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the beliefs of students studying at the Faculty of Health Sciences toward mental illnesses, how their sociodemographic characteristics affect these beliefs, and the relationship between their personality types and these beliefs.
METHODS: Students from the Faculty of Health Sciences (Nutrition and Dietetics, Social Work, Health Management, Audiology, and Nursing) studying at a state university were included in the sample of the descriptive study (n=491). The Personal Information Form, Beliefs Toward Mental Illness (BMI) Scale, and Type A and Type B Personality Questionnaire were used as data collection tools. The evaluation of the obtained data was performed using the SPSS 24.0 program, number and percentage distribution frequency, Spearman correlation, Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis, and the t-test. The limit of statistical significance was p<0.05.
RESULTS: Of the student participants, 42.2% had type A personality behavior, and 57.8% had type B personality behavior. It was seen that the negative beliefs of the students toward mental illness were moderate (45.7±15.1). There was a significant difference between the total score of the students on the BMI scale and their personality types (p<.000). It was determined that individuals with type B personality behavior had fewer negative beliefs about mental illnesses than individuals with type A personality behavior (p<.000).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: According to the results of the research, it was determined that there was a significant relationship between personality types and beliefs toward mental illnesses. Nurses, in their role as researchers, can examine the relationship between personality type and stigma in mental illness. Based on the studies showing that negative beliefs and attitudes toward mental illnesses are reduced with education, nurses as trainers can organize awareness trainings for mental illnesses, which is an important component of their profession.

12.Effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral-based psychoeducation in university students with smartphone addiction
Ayşe Tanşu, Gül Ünsal
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.05902  Pages 165 - 174
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral-based psychoeducation on smartphone addiction levels in university students.
METHODS: This study was conducted on university students studying in the academic year of 2019–2020 using baseline (preintervention) and postintervention measurements and follow-up tests. We selected 104 students scoring ≥31 points on the smartphone addiction scale. Psychoeducation training was applied to the experimental group for 60 min once a week in six sessions. At the end of the training, posttest was applied to both experimental and control groups, and follow-up tests had been performed at the end of the 3rd and 6th months after the training.
RESULTS: When the mean smartphone addiction scores of the experimental and control groups at postintervention and 3rd- and 6th-month follow-up were compared, there were significant differences between the groups (p< 0.05). These findings show that the psychoeducation program is effective in reducing addiction levels in university students with smartphone addiction.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In this respect, our study is thought to guide future studies focusing on interventions for behavioral addiction(s).

13.The relationship between psychological resilience, perceived stress, and anxiety levels of nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic process
Hamide Nur Çevik Özdemir, Pakize Özyürek, İbrahim Kılıç
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.80037  Pages 175 - 183
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to determine the psychological resilience, perceived stress, and anxiety levels of nursing students during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and to examine the relationships between these concepts.
METHODS: A total of 315 students studying in the nursing department of the Faculty of Health Sciences participated in this descriptive and correlational study. The data were evaluated using an introductory information form, the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. Frequency, percentage, t-test, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and clustering analysis were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: Nursing students’ BRS (X±SD=3.10±0.88), PSS (2.99±0.62), and GAD-7 (1.07±0.78) scores were intermediate. Negative and strong (r=−0.624), positive and strong (r=0.605), and negative and moderate (r=−0.530) correlations were found between psychological resilience and perceived stress, perceived stress and anxiety, and psychological resilience and anxiety, respectively. Additionally, BRS, PSS, and GAD-7 scores differed remarkably according to students’ individual characteristics. The students were divided into four groups in terms of the BRS, PSS, and GAD-7: feeble, frontier, passable, and sturdy.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that nursing students, especially in the feeble and frontier groups, were at risk of psychological resilience, perceived stress, and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic process. Empowerment programs should be prepared to support and encourage nursing students during this challenging period, and longitudinal studies should be planned with larger sample groups.

14.COVID-19 patient relatives' communication with health professionals and the patient and the sufficiency of communication in addressing patient relatives' concerns: a cross-sectional study
Hatice Oksal, Seçil Ekiz Erim, Havva Sert
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.34033  Pages 184 - 191
INTRODUCTION: It is known that relatives of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 are concerned about their patients due to the unpredictable process. In this study, it was aimed to determine the communication process of the relatives of the patient who was hospitalized due to COVID-19 with the patient and health professionals, to evaluate the level of concern of the patient's relatives and to evaluate the sufficiency of communication in overcoming their concerns.
METHODS: The sample of this cross-sectional study was calculated as 384 people with the formula of unknown population and the study was completed with 234 people. ''Personal Information Form'' developed by the researchers was used for data collection, and ''Visual Analog Scale (VAS)'' was used to determine the level of concern of the relatives of the patients and the adequacy of the communication to eliminate their concerns. SPSS 25.0 was used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: Due to restricted communication with their patients, 70.9% of the participants described themselves as " concerned". There is a significant difference (p<0.05) between the health professional with whom the patient's relatives communicate and the level of concern they report about their patients. Accordingly, it was found that those who communicated only with the patient's doctor were more concerned. Relatives of patients who did not receive sufficient information during communication, who met only with the doctor and whose patient was in the COVID-19 intensive care unit found the meeting with the health professional more inadequate in relieving their concerns (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Relatives of patients who could not communicate with health professionals and their patients had higher levels of concern. Relatives of the patients found the communication with the nurse/nurse and the doctor more effective in relieving their concerns. While doctors usually provide information about the patient's medical condition, nurses, who provide all the care of the patient, can provide more detailed information about the patient's general condition and activities of daily living. Among the relatives of patients who were concerned about their patients, those who communicate with nurses were both less concerned and found the communication more adequate in relieving their current concerns.

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