Journal of Psychiatric Nursing - J Psy Nurs: 14 (1)
Volume: 14  Issue: 1 - 2023

Pages I - IV

Nazmiye Yıldırım
Pages V - VI

3.Turkish adaptation of the verbal and social interaction Questionnaire for nursing students: a validity and reliability study
Aysel Özsaban, Esra Uslu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.13549  Pages 1 - 8
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to adapt of the Verbal and Social Interaction Questionnaire for Nursing Students to Turkish.
METHODS: The data of the methodological study were collected online between March and May 2021. The scale was translated using forward-back translation techniques. An expert panel in nursing education area considered the translations and provided content validation. The scale with student information form was conducted with 210 voluntary third and final year nursing students after pilot testing. Internal consistency was examined with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and item analysis and the translated scale factors’ the goodness of fit analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The scale was conducted to 35 nursing students at two-week intervals to investigate the re-test reliability.
RESULTS: Content validity index was 0.977. Factor loads were collected under four domains as in the subscales of the original scale i.e., inviting to talk about feelings and thoughts, building a caring relationship, encouraging social and practical aspects, caring towards health and wellbeing. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.950. Test-retest measurements did not significantly differ (p>0.05) and had a high correlation.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Turkish adaptation of the Verbal and Social Interaction Questionnaire for Nursing Students was concluded to be a valid and reliable tool.

4.The importance of mental health variables for life expectancy by entropy weighting method: a case of OECD countries
Esra Uslu, Gözde Yeşilaydın
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.79836  Pages 9 - 14
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the weights (order of importance) of the mental health variables associated with life expectancy and rank them from the most important.
METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Mental health variables were divided into two groups: (i) healthcare resources (psychiatric beds in mental hospitals or general hospitals, psychiatrists, and nurses working in the mental health sector); (ii) subjective well-being measures (perceived health status, life satisfaction, and quality of support network). Accordingly, the secondary data for the variables of mental health-related healthcare resources used in this study covers the years 2013–2017, and the data of subjective well-being measures covers 2017. The order of importance (weights) of the study variables was determined using the “entropy weighting method,” which is one of the criteria weighting methods employed in multi-criteria decision-making.
RESULTS: The most important variables associated with life expectancy were beds in mental hospitals and nurses working in the mental health sector. The quality of the support network was relatively less important.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results obtained point to the necessity of strengthening mental health resources in order to increase life expectancy. These results can guide health professionals about the priority interventions and policies that should be planned to increase life expectancy and the management of life expectancy-related variables.

5.The effects of online support program for nurses with COVID-19 patients on the professional quality of life and psychological empowerment perception: a randomized controlled trial
Gonca Üstün
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.24445  Pages 15 - 23
INTRODUCTION: This study examines the effects of an online support program for nurses with Covid-19 patients on their professional quality of life and psychological empowerment.
METHODS: This parallel randomized controlled experimental study with a pre- and post-test was prepared using the CONSORT 2010 checklist. This study was conducted online from July to December 2020 in Türkiye. The study was conducted with 48 nurses intervention group (n=24); control group (n=24) who were directly involved in the care of patients with Covid-19. The study data were collected using a personal information form, the Professional Quality of Life Scale and the Psychological Empowerment Scale (PES). An eight-session online support program was administered to the intervention group once a week. The scales were re-administered to the intervention and control groups after the program.
RESULTS: The intervention group’s post-test PES (t=−2.757; p=0.008; d=0.79) and compassion satisfaction scores (t=−3.887; p=0.000; d=1.12) increased significantly; their burnout (t=2.917; p=0.005; d=0.84) and compassion fatigue (t=3.134; p=0.003; d=0.90) post-test scores decreased significantly (p<0.05). The intervention group’s post-test PES (t=−4.926; p=0.000; d=1.01) and compassion satisfaction scores (t=−3.524; p=0.002; d=0.71) were significantly higher than their pre-test scores, and their compassion fatigue post-test score (t=3.646; p=0.001; d=0.72) was significantly lower (p<0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study’s online support program for nurses with Covid-19 patients increased their psychological empowerment and compassion satisfaction, and reduced their levels of burnout and compassion fatigue.

6.An analysis of COVID-19 disease perceptions and metaphors of nurses working in COVID-19 intensive care units
Afra Çalık, Betül Çakmak, Sevgisun Kapucu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.17048  Pages 24 - 32
INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is seen not only as a disease, but it is also defined by a series of metaphors: mysterious, evil, an invisible enemy, an insidious danger, and a democratic virus. This study was conducted to analyze the nurses’ perceptions of COVID-19 through metaphors.
METHODS: This qualitative research was planned as a descriptive phenomenological approach. Twenty-eight nurses working in the COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) participated in the study. The metaphor-based data collection process was carried out with five open-ended questions. The data were analyzed through a thematic analysis. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research Checklist was used to analyze this study.
RESULTS: Most military and fatigue related to the time nurses work in intensive care; Hero and nightmare of patient care with COVID-19; distance and restlessness in family relationships; their mental health darkroom and fatigue; COVID-19 as an insidious enemy and infinity. A total of 128 metaphors were produced.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Working during the COVID-19 epidemic, COVID-19 ICU nurses exhibit unfavorable approaches toward their jobs, family relationships, and mental health. Improving the working conditions of ICU nurses and considering their desires will help contribute to a favorable direction.

7.The effects of “I can ride the storm” program in functionality, life satisfaction, and perceived family burden in patients with schizophrenia
Çiğdem Dereboy, Gözde Sayın Karakaş, Gamze Karadayı Kaynak, Ilknur Kocadurdu, Ayşe Döndü, Fatma Demirkıran
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.29494  Pages 33 - 41
INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial interventions are frequently used in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to introduce the “I Can Ride the Storm” program, which was developed for patients with schizophrenia, and to examine the effects of the program on the patients’ functionality, life satisfaction, and perceived family burden.
METHODS: The sample consisted of 20 (11 females and 9 males) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who were willing to participate in group sessions and enroll in a community-based mental health service in a state hospital in Aydın. Five groups consisting of 5–6 patients were formed within a 2-year period. Each group had a total of nine sessions that lasted for one and a half months. The Functional Recovery Scale in Schizophrenia, the Functioning Assessment Short Test, and the Life Satisfaction Scale were administered to the patients, and the Perceived Family Burden Scale was administered to the family members of patients, before and after the program. Group sessions were conducted by a therapist and a co-therapist, who were supervised by two senior researchers.
RESULTS: The non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was performed to compare the differences between the pretest and post-test scores. The results indicated that the Life Satisfaction Scale scores of patients increased (z=−2.12, p<0.05), whereas the Perceived Family Burden Scale scores of their relatives decreased (z=−3.28, p<0.05). In addition, a decrease in perceived family burden was more evident in the families of male patients (z=−2.25, p<0.05).There was no significant change in the scores for the Functional Recovery Scale in Schizophrenia and the Functioning Assessment Short Test.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The findings of this first study evaluating the “I Can Ride the Storm” program are thought to be promising for the development of a new psychosocial intervention as an adjuvant to the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Simplified homework and tasks that adapt to the patients’ living conditions are seen as essential features of the program. It would be important to examine the effectiveness of the program with different studies that include a control group.

8.Children’s emotional reactions after landslide disaster in Indonesia: a qualitative study
Susanti Niman, Mustikasari Mustikasari, Lindasari Barus
doi: 10.14744/phd.2023.90532  Pages 42 - 48
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to explore the emotional reactions of children after a landslide disaster.
METHODS: This is a qualitative, hermeneutic phenomenological study. A total of 11 junior high school students who were victims of landslide disasters were selected by purposive sampling techniques. The data collection tool was created in form of semi-structured interview guidelines and obtained through in-depth interviews related to emotional reactions using recording tools on each participant. The data processing was carried out by listening to the verbal descriptions of participants from the recording device, compiling verbatim transcripts, and analyzing based on specific statements through the coding process, categorization, and grouping to form themes.
RESULTS: The participants are junior high school students consisting of female (n=6) and male (n=5) students who suffered losses of house and family members. Totally, five central themes are identified related to the emotional reaction of children after the landslide disaster experienced: “shock,” “sad,” “fear,” “anxiety,” and “powerlessness.”
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results showed that children who survived a landslide but lost their home or family have a negative emotional reaction that disturbs psychological well-being. Therefore, negative emotional reactions of the landslide victims affected the mental health and academic achievement of children in school. Hence, psychosocial nursing care is needed for children who survived landslide to create a comprehensive disaster nursing program and prevent psychological problems. This program starts the process of mental health nursing assessment and collects accurate data from the children who survived a landslide disaster. Based on this result, psychosocial interventions from mental health nurses are needed to help children cope with the negative emotional reaction on post-landslide disasters.

9.Internalized stigma and the quality of life and self-esteem of individuals with bipolar disorder
Aytuğ Türk, Nezihe Bulut Uğurlu
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.02700  Pages 49 - 58
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted in order to examine the effect of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics that are thought to have an impact on the internalized stigma, quality of life, and self-esteem of individuals with bipolar disorder and to determine the relationship between these variables.
METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 participants during the remission period in a community mental health center in İzmir City, Türkiye. The participants were interviewed face-to-face, and data were collected in December 2017 and April 2018 using the Socio-Demographic Data Form, Internalized Stamp Scale in Mental Diseases (ISMI), World Health Organization Quality Life Scale-Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Rosenberg Self-Respect Scale (RSES). The number, percentage, and average were used in descriptive statistics. Comparisons of inter-group socio-demographic and clinical variables are made using Spearman’s correlation analysis, while the relation-ship between internalized stigma, quality of life, and self-esteem, which are conceptual variables, is evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis variance analysis.
RESULTS: The patients' mean ISMI score was 58.56±18, and the mean WHOQOL-BREF score was 96.48±19.98. In addition, it was determined that 26% of the patients had low self-esteem. The socio-demographic and descriptive characteristics of the patients included education (p<0.05), income (p<0.001), employment status (p<0.01), a physical illness accompanying their mental illness (p<0.05), and the presence of a suicide attempt (p<0.05). It was determined that there was a significant difference between the groups on all scale scores. There is a strong negative relationship between ISMI and WHOQOL-BREF (r: −0.782, p<0.001) and RSES (r: −0.773, p<0.001), and a positive relationship between RSES and WHOQOL-BREF (r: 0.749, p<0.001).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: As internalized stigma increases, the quality of life and self-esteem decrease. For this reason, it is recommended to establish intervention programs to reduce the perceived level of stigma, improve their capacity to cope with and manage stigma, and increase their quality of life and self-esteem.

10.The effect of telehealth interventions on anxiety management in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review
Gülten Tarhan, Özlem Örsal, Pınar Duru
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.00378  Pages 59 - 69
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of telehealth interventions used in anxiety management during the COVID-19 pandemic.
METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, Web of Science, ProQuest Central, and Google Scholar databases were searched. A total of 7 studies were included, 3 of which were randomized controlled trials and 4 of which were quasi-experimental designs, published between January 2020 and May 2021.
RESULTS: For telehealth interventions in anxiety management, although mixed methods were also used, it was observed that online video conferencing (WeChat, SpinChat), telephone calls providing telenursing and tele-education, internet-based integrated intervention, and voice recording were effective. The time allocated for interventions and training included 5 sessions, including sessions of at least 15-20 minutes, and a total of 24 sessions, including sessions of 45-60 minutes at most.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: According to the studies, telehealth interventions during the pandemic were effective in reducing the anxiety levels of systemic sclerosis patients, patients diagnosed with COVID-19, pregnant women, and vulnerable individuals, like mothers with preschool children with autism and people supported by charities.

11.Effectiveness of an interventional package on soft skills and perceived need among nursing students - a quasi-experimental study
Monika Sharma, Anupama K Dayanand
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.76148  Pages 70 - 77
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an interventional package on soft skills and perceived needs among nursing students.
METHODS: A quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent control group design was conducted on 112 nursing students (56 in the experimental group and 56 in the control group) using a simple random method at selected nursing colleges. The data were collected using a descriptive characteristics form, soft skills scale, and perceived need scale. The experimental group received a 4-session intervention package (120 minutes per day), and then the scales were re-administered to both groups after one month. Descriptive analysis was used to evaluate qualitative data, including frequency and percentage distribution, and quantitative data were evaluated using the t-test for dependent and independent groups.
RESULTS: The mean soft skills score of nursing students in the experimental group before the interventional package was 178.86±23.34, and after the intervention was 241.02±23.01. The mean perceived need score before the interventional package was 36.29±3.41, and after was 44.70±3.15. In the experimental group, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the mean scores on both scales before and after the intervention, but not in the control group (p>0.05). A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the mean post-test scores on both scales between the experimental and control groups.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The interventional package used in the study significantly improved the soft skills and perception of nursing students. More importantly, separate soft skills programs in nursing curricula could help them enhance their careers in today's competitive world. More experimental studies with additional soft skills variables are recommended.

12.How authentic are we? The relationship between existential concerns and authenticity levels of psychiatric nurses
Sema Aslan, Serap Güleç Keskin
doi: 10.14744/phd.2022.81598  Pages 78 - 85
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to examine the relationship between psychiatric nurses’ existential concerns and their level of authenticity
METHODS: This research is a descriptive study looking for a relationship and was conducted with 192 nurses working at the Turkey Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital between February 2018 and August 2018. Data were collected using the “Descriptive Information Form”, “Existential concerns” and “Authenticity” scales.
RESULTS: The relationship between Existential Concerns scale scores and Authenticity Inventory Scale scores was negative and significant (p<0.01).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: It is recommended to investigate the reasons affecting the existential anxiety levels of psychiatric nurses and to provide psychoeducation to increase their authenticity.

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